DigiNerve is constantly evolving to enhance the user experience while you’re on their journey to becoming a Top Doc. We are excited to bring the latest updates with our commitment to ensure a seamless journey on the go.

Read our monthly newsletter’s May edition (Vol – 2) for the latest updates.



PostGrad Course Updates

Dermatology MD:-

1. 5 new topics have been added to the following module:

  • Leprosy
    • Leprosy Among Specific Population Including Pregnancy and HIV
    • Lepra Reactions
    • Clinical Approach to a Leprosy Patient
    • History of Leprosy
    • Management of Leprosy
  • The topics mentioned above also include 25 new MCQs and 10 benchmark trials.


Medicine MD:-

1. 95 new DxTx have been added to the following body parts:

  • Brain
  • Heart
  • Stomach
  • Gall Bladder
  • Liver
  • Auxiliary/Rheumatology
  • Muscle
  • Auxiliary/Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Bones
  • Auxiliary/Hematology
  • Kidney
  • Auxiliary/Kidney
  • Auxiliary/Critical Care Medicine
  • Auxiliary/Envenomation and Poisoning
  • Auxiliary/Geriatrics
  • Auxiliary/Psychiatry
  • Auxiliary/Metabolic Disease
  • Skin



  1. 5 new topics have been added to the following modules:


Section Module Topic
Gynecology Menstrual Abnormalities Menopause
Population Dynamics and Pregnancy Prevention Demography and Population Dynamics in India
Procedural Videos Diagnostic and Simple Interventional Procedures
Obstetrics Complications of Pregnancy Disorders of Amniotic Fluid Volume
Genetics Genetics of Human Reproduction and Infertility

     2. The topics mentioned above also include 25 new MCQs and 10 benchmark trials.


Professional Course Updates

MRCOG Part 1:-

1. Chat show on “Discussion of Important questions – January, 2024 Part 1” by Dr. Richa Saxena has been added to the course.

Learning Outcomes of the chat show were:

  • Discussion on important questions of MRCOG part 1 exam.
  • Preparation for exam with the help of carefully curated questions with detailed explanations, images, and flowcharts.
  • Quick go through during last minute exam preparation.
  • Understanding latest patterns of questions as per RCOG curriculum.
  • Easing the journey of clearing MRCOG exam.


MRCOG Part 2:-

1. The new TOG 2024- Issue 1 has been added to the TOGs (The Obstetrician and Gynecologist) module of the course.


Update Your DigiNerve App for Better Experience.


To read the updates shared in the Monthly Newsletter May (Vol-1), click here.

DigiNerve is constantly evolving to enhance your experience while you’re on your journey to becoming a Top Doc. We are excited to bring you the latest updates with our commitment to ensure a seamless journey on the go.

Read on the May edition (Vol – 1) of our monthly newsletter to know the latest updates.



PostGrad Course Updates

Pediatrics MD:-

1. 8 new topics have been added to the following modules:

Module Topic
Adolescent Health Adolescents Mental Health Problems
Genetics and Metabolic Disorders Prevention Strategies for Genetic Conditions
Gene Therapy
Down Syndrome
What a Pediatrician should Know
Gaucher Disease
Lysosomal Storage Disorders
Gastroenterology Pediatric Liver Transplantation: When Why and How?

Note: The topics mentioned above also include 40 new (MCQs) and 16 benchmark trials.



1. The drug chart has been revamped with the addition of 89 new drugs.

2. The new format includes color coding and two additional columns for adverse reaction and drug interaction.


Surgery MS:-

1. 5 New topics have been added to the following modules:

Module Section Topic
Surgical Skills Vascular Disorders IV Fluids in Surgery
Basic Surgery Skills Use of Staplers: Skin and GI Staplers
Principles of Controlling Intraoperative Bleeding
Minimally Invasive Procedures Basics of Robotic Surgery
Proper Care and Handling of Laparoscopic Instruments

Note: The topics mentioned above also include 32 new (MCQs) and 10 benchmark trials.


Professional Course Updates


Critical Care Simplified:-

1. 12 new videos and 76 new MCQs have been added to the course. List of new module added in the following section.

Module Topic
Sepsis Evolution of Sepsis Definition
Evaluation and Management of a Septic Patient with Myocardial Dysfunction
Sepsis Mimics
Source Control in Sepsis
Hemodynamic Monitoring in Sepsis
Sepsis Epidemiology
Managing MDR, XDR & PDR (Gram negative bacteria)
Role of Steroids in Sepsis
Tropical Sepsis
Post Sepsis Syndrome
Evaluation and Management of Septic Patients with Impaired Renal Function
The Respiratory System Newer Modes of Ventilation



1. Dr. Wise now with enhanced features:

  • Quiz: Utilize the quiz section feature for a rapid review of medical conditions, treatments, and drugs through MCQs.
  • Notes: Create concise notes with just one click.
  • Compare: Easily compare any two entities, such as drugs or diseases, to gain a better understanding of their similarities and differences.
  • Drug List: Access a comprehensive drug list providing information on characteristics, dosages, side effects, and administration details for informed medical decisions pertaining to a specific disease/condition.
  • Drug Chart: Explore our comprehensive drug chart detailing common uses, dosage, indications, side effects, contraindications, brand names, and critical drug interactions.
  • Flashcards Creation: Create flashcards about any disease for a quick review with concise content.
  • Images: Access visual aids from our curated collection, sourced from authoritative textbooks and current course materials, enhancing your learning experience.


Update Your DigiNerve App for Better Experience.

The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test for Post-Graduation is a qualifying and ranking test in India for candidates interested in doing MD, MS, or PG Diploma. This year’s NEET PG Exam is scheduled for 23rd June’24.

Let’s go into the eligibility, Application fee updates, marking scheme, and other details.

NEET PG 2024 Eligibility Criteria:

  1. According to the Indian Medical Council Act 1956, the candidates are required to have an MBBS degree or a Provisional MBBS Pass Certificate.
  2. Candidates must have a permanent or provisional MCI or SMC-issued MBBS qualification registration.
  3. The candidates must have completed a year of internship before applying.

Application and Fees:

As per the NEET PG 2024 fees have been reduced, and the General and OBC applicants must pay Rs. 3,500 to fill out the NEET PG application form, while SC/ST/PWD candidates must pay Rs. 2,500.


The exam will be 3.5 hours long.

Exam Format:

The exam will be computer-based and administered at the designated locations.

Test Pattern & Marks:

14 subjects are classified under 3 parts in the paper:

Part A – Pre-clinical subjects

  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry

Part B – Para-clinical subjects

  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology
  • Forensic medicine
  • Social & preventive medicine

Part C – Clinical subjects

  • General medicine including
  • Dermatology & venereology
  • Psychiatry
  • General surgery including
  • Orthopedics, anaesthesia & radiodiagnosis
  • Obstetrics & gynecology
  • Pediatrics
  • ENT
  • Ophthalmology

Marking scheme:

Incorrect answers will incur a penalty of 25% through negative marking. No deductions will be made for questions left unanswered.

  • +4 marks for correct response
  • -1 for incorrect response
  • No marks for unattempted question

Important Dates: NBEMS has published the official exam calendar having dates of NEET PG 2024.

Events Dates
NEET PG 2024 Application form release 16-April-2024
Last Date to submit an application 6-May-2024
Cut-off Release 15-Aug-2024
NEET PG 2024, Exam Date 23-June-2024
Result Declaration 15-July-2024

Note: Candidates should be aware that admit cards will not be provided to those who are found ineligible before the examination.

How to prepare for NEET PG 2024?

It’s time for you to make the most of the preparation period. Revise as much as you can. Whatever you’ve studied to date, it’s now time to test yourself and prepare for the bigger one. Always keep in mind that your perspective defines your reality.

Here are the 7 Tips to crack NEET PG 2024:

  1. Create and Stick by a Plan: Decide for the next day before you go to bed and stick to it no matter what. Wake up and stick to your plan so you’re prepared and don’t waste time deciding what to study.
  2. Prioritize the subjects where you need conceptual clarity: Focus on conceptual clarity with the help of trusted content only. Finding the right content can be a hassle so choose DigiNerve, an app by Jaypee Brothers who have published most of your textbooks. This online app provides video lectures by India’s top faculty which include your textbook authors.
  3. Revision and MCQs: The more you revise, the better; devote the first two months to clarifying concepts of the topics you’re having trouble with, and the last month to solving MCQs.
  4. Question papers from previous years: This will assist you in comprehending the NEET PG Exam structure and identifying essential topics that may appear in the exam.
  5. Notes: You probably have read everything, and you have the knowledge so now the only thing left is to go through your notes, it will help you recall important points.
  6. ITD method: Memorize with the help of the ITD Method- Importance of the topic, Time consumption, and Detailing.
  7. Enroll for Mock Tests: Attending mock tests will help you assess your knowledge. This will help you know the subjects where you need clarity. On its official website, the NBE publishes practice tests. One of the most important components of the exam preparation approach is the mock test. You must conduct mock tests after concluding their revision to assess their preparation. You will get to learn what else must be done to increase a particular topic’s score. To access the sample test, you must first log in to the NBE’s official website. Before beginning the online mock test, candidates should carefully read all the instructions. Recalibrate your strategy by taking a mock test and weighing your results.

To prepare for NEET PG 2024, subscribe to DigiNerve’s courses by India’s top faculty today.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. When will NEET PG be in 2024?

Ans. The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test-Postgraduate (NEET PG 2024) will now be held on June 23, 2024.

Q2. Is PG necessary after MBBS?

Ans. For doctors to be successful in their specialties, they must have a postgraduate degree in medicine.

Q3. How do I pay the fees for NEET PG 2024?

Ans. Fees can be paid using a debit/credit card or a net banking service. Candidates should print the confirmation page after successfully paying the application fees.

Pathology is a comprehensive subject, included in the 2nd year of the MBBS curriculum. It covers various aspects of disease processes, their causes, and the resulting changes in the structure and function of the body. The subject serves as the bridge between the basic sciences and clinical medicine, helping medical professionals understand the underlying processes of diseases.

Medical students must have a sound knowledge of the pathology subject, as it provides a foundation for understanding disease processes, making accurate diagnoses, and formulating appropriate treatment plans. The subject also plays a crucial role in research and contributes significantly to medical knowledge and patient care advancements.

The Pathology course curriculum in MBBS includes an introduction to pathology, cellular pathology, hematology, general pathology, systemic pathology, common pathogens and their mechanisms, histopathology, clinical pathology, autopsy, and forensic pathology.


Subject Weightage of Pathology in Competitive Exams

Approximately 12 questions are asked in the NEET-PG exam, and in the INI-CET, approximately, 13-16 questions are asked from the Pathology subject.

The competitive exams mainly assess the understanding of the aspirant regarding disease processes, diagnostic principles, and the application of pathology in clinical scenarios.

Getting familiar with the subject weightage of subjects in exams, exam patterns, high-yield topics, and reliable preparation tips multiplies the chances of gaining conceptual clarity over a subject and scoring high in the exams.


Important Topics of Pathology in MBBS



  • Coagulation Pathway
  • Hemophilia
  • Blood Bank
  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Hemolytic Anemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Hypercoagulability
  • Thalassemia
  • Acute Leukemia (AML/ALL)
  • CML & MDS
  • Waldenstrom’s Disease and Heavy Chain Disorders
  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
  • Stain


Cell Biology

  • Cell Injury Concept
  • Cellular Adaption
  • Irreversible Injury 1 and 2
  • Free Radical Injury
  • Pigmentation
  • Necrosis



  • Jaundice
  • Fatty Liver
  • Hepatitis
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Whipple Disease
  • GI Polyps
  • Liver disorders
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Acute and Chronic Gastritis
  • GIT Tumor
  • Congenital GIT Anomalies
  • Mesothelioma



  • PSGN
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Glomerular Nephritis
  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Alport Syndrome
  • Renal Spotters
  • Renal Stones



  • Malformations of Brain
  • CSF Analysis
  • Prion Disease
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Meningioma
  • CNS Degenerative Disease
  • Meningitis
  • CNS Tumor
  • Neuroblastoma



  • ARDS
  • Emphysema
  • TB Lung Lesions
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Occupational Disease
  • Obstructive Lung Disorders
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Infective Lung Disorders
  • Lung Abscess
  • Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Lung Cancer
  • COPD
  • Asbestosis



  • Myocardial Infarction
  • DCM & HCM
  • Aortic Aneurysm
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Vasculitis
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Vascular Sclerosis
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Clotting Factor Disorders
  • Blood Transfusion and Blood Grouping
  • Platelets Disorders



  • Fibroadenoma
  • Breast Oncogenesis
  • Breast Cancer
  • TNM Staging



  • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Follicular Carcinoma
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Parathyroid and Thyroid Disorders
  • Adrenal Gland Disorders



  • Plasma Chemical Mediators
  • Coagulation Cascade
  • Chronic Inflammation
  • Neutrophil Extracellular Trap
  • Inflammatory Markers



  • Tumor Marker
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Molecular Hallmark of Cancer
  • Bone Tumors
  • Melanoma
  • Hodgkin & Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Seminoma



  • Gene Repair Defects
  • Inheritance Pattern
  • Down Syndrome
  • Turner Syndrome
  • TNR Disorders
  • Single Cell Disorder
  • Specific Cytogenetic Disorders



  • Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • Granuloma
  • Complement Pathway
  • Immunodeficiency Disorders



  • Aging
  • Marfan & Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
  • Transplantation
  • HIV
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Amyloidosis


Tips to Prepare Pathology in MBBS


Preparing for pathology in MBBS requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. To have an in-depth understanding of the subject, establish a strong foundation in anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, as pathology builds upon these subjects. The MBBS curriculum caters to general pathology, hematology, systemic pathology, clinical pathology, and practicals in pathology.

To start with the pathology subject, familiarize yourself with basic medical terminologies, and then move on to the general pathology section. Understand the basics and attend regular classes. From the beginning, create a well-organized study schedule to cover all the topics systematically, and allocate sufficient time to review and consolidate your learning. Once you grasp the fundamental concepts, start with the hematology section.

Be wise while choosing the books for pathology. Opt recommended standard textbooks to clear your concepts, pathology atlases to visualize and understand various pathological conditions, and also add pathology review books to your shelves that provide concise summaries of key concepts for quick revision. Some recommendations for pathology books are Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan, Essentials in Hematology and Clinical Pathology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology by Ramadas Nayak, Rapid Review of Hematology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Review of Pathology and Genetics by Sparsh Gupta & Gobind Rai Garg, and Comprehensive Image-Based Review of Pathology by Sushant Soni.

Then, further, start emphasizing systemic pathology. Thoroughly study all the systems along with prevalent conditions and diagnostic methods. Make sure you make proper notes side by side for all the topics. They will prove quite beneficial at the time of exams for revision, be it professional exams or any competitive exams. During your studies, engage in active learning methods such as concept mapping, creating flashcards, and flowcharts, and teaching concepts to peers. Also, solve clinical case scenarios to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations. Create mind maps and diagrams to visualize complex pathways and relationships between different pathological conditions.

Remember ‘P for Pathology and P for Practicals’. The subject is better understood when you conduct experiments and practicals simultaneously. It is highly advised to attend pathology practical classes to enhance your understanding of histopathology and diagnostic techniques. Also, during your lab sessions, practice identifying microscopic slides and understanding the correlation between pathology and clinical presentations. Consider shadowing or observing clinical cases in pathology labs. Correlate clinical features with pathological findings to strengthen your understanding of clinical pathology. Becoming capable of finding the clinical relevance of pathological conditions and relating pathology to signs, symptoms, and diagnostic methods is an assertive sign that you are becoming well-versed in pathology concepts.

Along with learning pathology and attending practical sessions, solve practice questions for all the topics for self-evaluation and better understanding. Also, solve past exam papers and mock papers for the exams you are determined to score high. Solving them will help you understand the exam pattern, improve time-management skills, identify key aspects, and focus on high-yielding topics. Along with college lectures, practical sessions, and ward postings, keep yourself updated with the recent advances and research in pathology by attending webinars, workshops, and conferences.

To reinforce your understanding of pathology concepts, you can enroll in the Pathology for UnderGrads online course by Prof. Harsh Mohan, Prof. Ramadas Nayak, and Dr. Debasis Gochhait. The course provides access to video lectures, concise notes, and practice questions, all aligned with the CBME curriculum. The lectures comprise relevant case studies, case discussions, histological and gross images, and important questions for university exams, practical exams, and PG entrance exams. Most importantly, regularly revise topics to reinforce your memory.


Must Read: Important Topics of Microbiology

Must Read: Important Topics of Pharmacology


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

  1. What are the important topics of pathology in MBBS?

The important topics of pathology in MBBS include Multiple Myeloma, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Lymphoma, Thalassemia, Acute Leukemia, Gene Repair Defects, Inflammation, Free Radical Injury, Fatty Liver, Ulcerative Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Peptic Ulcer Disease, Diabetic Retinopathy, Glomerular Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, CNS Degenerative Disease, Meningitis, Occupational Disease, Infective Lung Disorder, Lung Abscess, Infective Endocarditis, Adrenal Gland Disorders, Breast Cancer, Tumor Suppressor Gene, Hypertension, Genital System, and Down Syndrome.


  1. Which are the recommended books on pathology for MBBS students?

Recommended books for pathology in MBBS include Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan, Essentials in Hematology and Clinical Pathology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology by Ramadas Nayak, Rapid Review of Hematology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Review of Pathology and Genetics by Sparsh Gupta & Gobind Rai Garg and Comprehensive Image Based Review of Pathology by Sushant Soni.


  1. What is the weightage of pathology in the NEET PG exam?

In the NEET-PG exam, approximately 12 questions are asked from the pathology subject.


  1. What is the subject weightage of pathology in INI-CET?

In INI-CET, approximately 13–16 questions are asked from the pathology subject.


  1. How to prepare for pathology for the NEET-PG?

Preparing for pathology in MBBS requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Establish a strong foundation in fundamental subjects. Familiarize yourself with basic terminologies and then move on to sections. Attend regular classes and practical sessions. Take proper notes. Create a well-organized study schedule. Grasp the fundamental concepts. Opt for recommended standard textbooks, pathology atlases, and pathology review books. Thoroughly study all the systems along with prevalent conditions and diagnostic methods. Engage in active learning methods such as concept mapping, creating flashcards, flowcharts, mind maps, diagrams, and more. Also, solve clinical case scenarios to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations. Solve practice questions for all the topics for self-evaluation and better understanding. Keep yourself updated with recent advances and research. Attend webinars, workshops, and conferences. Enroll in the Pathology for UnderGrads online course by Prof. Harsh Mohan, Prof. Ramadas Nayak, and Dr. Debasis Gochhait to reinforce your learning.

The National Medical Commission (NMC) has achieved the coveted World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Recognition Status for a tenure of 10 years. This is a prestigious achievement for India’s medical education. This esteemed award proves NMC’s steadfast dedication to the highest standards in medical education and accreditation.

The WFME recognition will now enable Indian medical graduates to pursue postgraduate training and practice in other countries that require WFME recognition, such as Australia, USA, Canada, and New Zealand.

The World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) is a global organization dedicated to raising the standard of medical education all over the world. The WFME accreditation programme is crucial in ensuring that medical institutions uphold and adhere to the highest levels of global education and training standards.

Dr. Yogender Malik, Member of the Ethics and Medical Registration Board and Head Media Division at NMC, on this remarkable achievement, said, “WFME’s recognition underscores that the quality of medical education in India adheres to global standards. This accolade empowers our students with the opportunity to pursue their careers anywhere in the world, while also making India an attractive destination for international students due to our globally recognized standards.”

Under this accreditation, all the 706 existing medical colleges in India will be considered WFME accredited, and the new colleges being set up in the coming 10 years will also be considered as WFME accredited. This will also benefit NMC in enhancing the quality and standards of Indian medical education by aligning them with global benchmarks. This will facilitate academic collaborations and promote continuous improvement and innovation in medical education.

Now NMC being WFME accredited has opened the doors for all the medical students for ECFMG and USMLE. All Indian students will become eligible to apply for the Education Commission on Foreign Medical Graduates and United States Medical Licensing Examination.

The National Medical Council, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in a press release dated 20th September 2023 has announced this remarkable update.

Pathology is a medical specialty that deals with the causes and nature of disease. By delivering early and accurate diagnoses, which are crucial for successful treatment, pathologists play a crucial role in patient care.

A pathologist works with the causes and characteristics of illness and employs information acquired from the laboratory application of the biological, chemical, and physical sciences to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. For the diagnosis and monitoring of illness, this specialist uses data obtained from microscopic inspection of tissue samples, cells, and bodily fluids as well as from clinical laboratory testing on bodily fluids and secretions. By delivering early and accurate diagnoses, which are crucial for successful treatment, pathologists play a crucial role in patient care.

If you are good at going with a microscope as your friend than a stethoscope, then pathology is a great option to choose as a specialty. This specialty is more of working behind the scenes sitting for long hours diagnosing rather than directly dealing with the patients.

Steps for Becoming a Pathologist

  • Complete your 12th standard in the Science stream with a minimum of 55% aggregate.
  • Then you have two options for your undergraduate degree, either you can go with an MBBS undergraduate degree, or you can go with a B.Sc. in Pathology. The former is more into medicine side while the latter is a basic health and allied sciences degree. Depending on your preference and educational qualification, you can choose between both. To pursue an MBBS degree, you must crack the NEET-UG entrance examination with a competitive score. You can opt for a government or private college for any of the undergraduate courses as per your preference and score. Always seek proper guidance before choosing a medical college.

Must Read: Things to know before choosing a medical college.

  • After completing graduation, you must complete your postgraduation in pathology. If you did an MBBS, then go with an MD in Pathology degree and if you opted for BSc then go with an MSc Pathology degree. To pursue MD Pathology, you need to score high in the NEET-PG/INI-CET and for M.Sc. Pathology, you need to follow the admission procedure of the particular college.
  • Then after completing postgraduation, you need to gain experience, then you have the option to pursue fellowship courses in various pathology subspecialities. You can also opt for a Ph.D. programme.

Apart from a degree, you also have the option to pursue a Diploma in Pathology or relevant certification courses.

Top Medical Colleges to Pursue MD Pathology in India

  1. AIIMS, Delhi
  2. Christian Medical College, Vellore
  3. Grant Government Medical College, Mumbai
  4. AFMC, Pune
  5. JIPMER, Puducherry
  6. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal
  7. IPGME&R and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata
  8. KGMU, Lucknow
  9. St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore
  10. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi
  11. Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
  12. VMMC, New Delhi

Pathologists employ a wide range of instruments and methods to investigate illness, such as:

  • Microscopical analysis of tissue samples: Pathologists use microscopes to analyse tiny slices of tissue in search of anomalies that might be signs of illness.
  • Testing in the laboratory: Pathologists do several tests in the lab on tissues and bodily fluids to determine the concentrations of various chemicals, including hormones, enzymes, and proteins. These examinations can support illness diagnosis, track disease development, and evaluate therapy effectiveness.
  • Autopsies: Pathologists examine a deceased person’s body after death to ascertain the cause of death and learn more about any ailments they may have had.

List of Pathology Subspecialities

Pathology is a broad specialty that encompasses a variety of subspecialties, including:

  • Transfusion Medicine
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Cytopathology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Histopathology
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Hematopathology/Hematology
  • Molecular Genetic Pathology
  • Neuropathology
  • Pediatric Pathology
  • Pulmonary Pathology
  • Renal Pathology
  • Surgical Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Molecular Pathology

Skills Required for Becoming a Pathologist

A skilled pathologist should be well-versed in the following:

Establish a diagnosis for common and difficult clinical issues using histopathology (surgical pathology) and cytopathology specimens, blood and bone marrow examinations, and different laboratory medicine tests (clinical pathology, Blood Banking (Transfusion Medicine), and clinical biochemistry.

Construct correlations between clinical and laboratory data to ensure that clinical disease symptoms can be explained.

Suggest the proper samples and tests to conduct to reach a diagnosis in a difficult case.

Compare pathology results from an autopsy with those from the clinic, the causes of disease-related deaths, and their miscorrelations (other than isolated metabolic causes).

Should be competent to instruct pathology to nursing students, postgraduates, undergraduates, and paramedical professionals, including lab staff.

Be able to work as a team, cultivate a cooperative attitude among coworkers, and communicate with patients, clinicians, and other coworkers to offer the best diagnostic or opinion.

Always uphold ethical values, maintain an appropriate demeanour in interactions with patients, family members, and other medical professionals, and respect the patient’s rights, including access to information and a second opinion.

Capable of carrying out standard procedures in a pathology lab, such as grossing specimens, processing, slicing paraffin and frozen sections, and staining.

Capable of routinely performing non-invasive outpatient procedures like venipuncture, finger pricks, fine needle aspirations of superficial lumps, and bone marrow aspirates in order to collect specimens, and to give appropriate assistance to colleagues performing invasive procedures like a biopsy or an imaging-guided biopsy.

Salary and Scope of Pathologist

Pathology is a highly promising job as no diagnosis is complete without pathology. Pathologists are in great demand, and the job outlook for them is predicted to improve over the coming ten years at a faster-than-average rate. Pathologists can find employment in a range of places, such as hospitals, clinics, research facilities, diagnostic labs, and governmental organisations. After completing your medical education and gaining experience in Pathology, you can open your diagnostic pathology centre.

Pathologists have a highly diverse range of employment options and several prospects for progression. Anatomic pathology, clinical pathology, and forensic pathology are just a few examples of the areas of pathology in which pathologists might specialise.

For those with a passion for science and medicine, attention to detail, and strong analytical abilities, pathology is a good speciality. Additionally, pathologists must be able to operate both alone and collaboratively. On average, a pathologist earns 50K to 80K per month and it varies depending on the area of employment.

The job profiles associated with pathologist include Clinical Pathologist, Professor/Lecturer, Forensic Pathologist, Clinical Researcher Associate, Medical Writer, Transfusion Medicine Specialist, and more.

Best Books for Studying Pathology

  • Prof Harsh Mohan’s Textbook of Pathology
  • Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology by Ramadas Nayak and Sharda Rai
  • Rapid Review of Hematology by Ramadas Nayak and Sharda Rai
  • Review of Pathology and Genetics by Gobind Rai Garg and Sparsh Gupta
  • Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Diseases by Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, and Jon C. Aster
  • Fundamentals of Pathology by Husain A. Sattar
  • Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas
  • Cytopathology Review by Fang Fan and Ivan Danjanov
  • Gray’s Diagnostic Cytopathology
  • Rosai and Ackerman’s Surgical Pathology
  • Atlas and Text of Haematology by Tejinder Singh
  • Orell’s Atlas of Aspiration Cytology
  • Lever’s Dermatopathology

By offering precise and fast diagnoses, which are necessary for efficient treatment, pathologists play a crucial role in the healthcare industry. They also strive to create innovative diagnostic methods and disease-specific therapies.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1. What should I do after 12th to become a Pathologist?

Ans. After completing the 12th standard, either you can go with an MBBS undergraduate degree, or you can go with a B.Sc. in Pathology. The former is more into medicine side while the latter is a basic health and allied sciences degree. Depending on your preference, you can choose between both. To pursue an MBBS degree, you must crack the NEET-UG entrance examination with a competitive score, and for a B.Sc., you need to follow the admission procedure of the particular college. You can opt for a government or private college for any of the undergraduate courses as per your preference and entrance exam score. Always seek proper guidance before choosing a medical college.

Q2. What are the career prospects for pathologists?

Ans. Pathologists can find employment in a range of places, such as hospitals, clinics, research facilities, diagnostic labs, and governmental organisations. After completing your medical education and gaining experience in Pathology, you can open your diagnostic pathology centre. The job profiles associated with pathologist include Clinical Pathologist, Professor/Lecturer, Forensic Pathologist, Clinical Researcher Associate, Medical Writer, Transfusion Medicine Specialist, and more.

Q3. How good is pathology as a career?

Ans. Pathology is a highly promising job as no diagnosis is complete without pathology. Pathologists are in great demand, and the job outlook for them is predicted to improve over the coming ten years at a faster-than-average rate. Pathologists can find employment in a range of places, such as hospitals, clinics, research facilities, diagnostic labs, and governmental organisations. After completing your medical education and gaining experience in Pathology, you can open your diagnostic pathology centre. Pathologists have a highly diverse range of employment options and several prospects for progression. Anatomic pathology, clinical pathology, and forensic pathology are just a few examples of the areas of pathology in which pathologists might specialise.

Q4. What is the salary of an MBBS MD pathologist in India?

Ans. On average, a pathologist earns 50K to 80K per month and it varies depending on the area of employment. The job profiles associated with pathologist include Clinical Pathologist, Professor/Lecturer, Forensic Pathologist, Clinical Researcher Associate, Medical Writer, Transfusion Medicine Specialist, and more.

Click here to get conceptual clarity on MBBS subjects.

Global health comprises the biological and clinical facets of diseases along with the social, economic, political, and environmental determinants of health. The ability to confine health issues inside national borders has diminished as the globe becomes more linked.

The contribution of technology to the medical sector is unparalleled. With the years passing by technology is improving at the highest pace in the medicine sector. Nowadays, the use of AI, and the development of new therapies, drugs, drug development, and surgical procedures, have made complex medical procedures less complex and paved a path to minimally invasive surgeries. Millions of individuals throughout the world are having their lives improved as a result of these developments.

Global health has improved recently despite several obstacles like poverty, pandemics, disease outbreaks, conflicts, and climate change. Maternal and child fatalities have dropped significantly and since the development of new vaccinations, infectious illness spread has also been reduced. Governments and organisations have also boosted their funding for global health concerns and also significantly invested in newer technologies. The current developments in the healthcare industry are beneficial to global health and are an area with significant potential to enhance the health of people all over the world and in the medical field. We can improve the health of people all across the world by addressing the issues and embracing the possibilities.

Medical students and professionals must keep themselves updated and knowledgeable about the recent advancements in healthcare as it is going to impact their career growth to a great extent. To escalate the growth of your medical career, it is mandated to upskill.

The recent advancements in the global healthcare and medicine field are significant for several reasons. By offering more precise diagnoses, earlier illness detection, and more individualised treatment regimens, they have the potential to:

  • Improve the quality of care for patients.
  • By enabling remote monitoring and care and minimising the need for in-person visits, healthcare may be made more accessible and cheaper.
  • Increase the effectiveness of healthcare delivery by simplifying administrative procedures and facilitating information exchange between healthcare professionals.
  • Develop novel therapies and preventative measures to lessen the impact of chronic illnesses.
  • Boost public health by keeping track of and rapidly and efficiently addressing illness outbreaks.

Below mentioned are technological advancements in medicine and global healthcare:


Artificial Intelligence and Healthcare

With the introduction of unprecedented tools for patient care, treatment, and diagnosis, artificial intelligence (AI) is drastically changing the healthcare industry.

For researchers interested in global health, AI-driven health interventions fall into four categories: diagnosis, patient morbidity or mortality risk assessment, disease outbreak prediction and surveillance, and health policy and planning. Machine learning, signal processing, data mining, natural language processing, and other forms of AI are applied in the healthcare sector.

Here are a few current applications of AI in healthcare:

  • Diagnosis and treatment: Artificial intelligence (AI) paves the way for the screening of disease and can analyse medical images like X-rays and scans to identify illnesses early and more accurately than humans. AI may be used to create individualised treatment regimens for individuals based on their unique traits and requirements. Other applications of artificial intelligence being used in medicine include Digital chest radiographs, cervical cancer screening, estimating perinatal risk factors, and characterising and predicting the global spread of the Zika virus.
  • Drug discovery: Artificial intelligence (AI) may be used to search through extensive databases of chemicals and compounds to find possible new medicines. AI may also be used to foresee how pharmaceuticals would react in the body, lowering the possibility of adverse effects.
  • Personalised medicine: Artificial intelligence (AI) may be used to examine a patient’s genetic information, medical history, and lifestyle choices in order to develop a personalised treatment plan that has the highest chance of success.
  • Risk assessment: AI may be used to predict the risk of disease and figure out how likely a patient is to have cancer or heart disease. Patients can utilise this knowledge to guide lifestyle adjustments that will lower their risk.
  • Healthcare administration: AI may be used to automate processes like appointment scheduling, patient record management, and claim processing. This might free up medical personnel to concentrate on treating patients.
  • Telemedicine: Platforms that employ AI in telemedicine can be used to offer doctor consultations via the Internet. Patients with limited access to healthcare in remote locations may particularly benefit from this.
  • Robotics: Surgery, pharmaceutical dispensing, and other medical services can be carried out by AI-powered robots. This might aid in enhancing the effectiveness and precision of healthcare delivery.
  • Big data analytics: Using AI, enormous databases of healthcare data may be analysed to spot trends and patterns. The diagnosis and treatment of illnesses can be made better with the use of this knowledge.
  • Virtual assistants: AI-driven virtual assistants may be used to set up appointments, answer patients’ inquiries, and offer information about their conditions. The patient experience may be enhanced as a result of this.

The future of AI in healthcare is very promising. The use of AI in healthcare is still in its early stages, but it has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and manage diseases. In the years to come, as AI technology advances, it is anticipated to have a more significant influence on the healthcare industry.


Advances in Gene Editing Technology

The science of gene editing is expanding quickly. The way we treat illnesses is changing as a result of gene editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9. These technologies can be used to fix genetic flaws that lead to disease or to add new genes that can offer disease protection.

The following are some of the developments in gene editing technologies that are being investigated for medical applications:

  • CRISPR-Cas9: A protein called Cas9 is used by CRISPR-Cas9 to cut DNA at a precise spot. This enables precise gene replacement, deletion, and insertion. The most popular gene editing technology, CRISPR-Cas9, is being researched for a number of uses, including the treatment of HIV, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and hereditary illnesses.

For instance, in cancer patients, CRISPR-Cas9 is being utilised to create novel cancer medicines that can target and eliminate cancer cells. CAR T-cell treatments, a sort of immunotherapy that employs a patient’s immune cells to combat cancer, are being developed by researchers utilising CRISPR-Cas9.

  • Base editing: A more recent gene editing technique, base editing allows you to alter specific DNA nucleotides without actually cutting the DNA. Compared to CRISPR-Cas9, this makes it less likely to result in unwanted side effects. For the therapy of conditions including cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, base editing is being researched.
  • RNA editing: An approach to gene editing that can target RNA molecules rather than DNA. This can be utilised to treat conditions like certain cancers that are brought on by RNA alterations.
  • Gene therapy: Gene therapy is a treatment that involves introducing genes into cells to correct a genetic defect. Numerous illnesses, including cancer, HIV, and hereditary ailments, have been treated by gene therapy.

These are only a handful of the gene editing innovations that are being investigated for medical applications. Technology’s continued advancement will probably have a significant influence on how we manage diseases in the years to come.


Development of Precision Medicine

A person’s unique genetic makeup, lifestyle, and environment are all taken into consideration when developing a medical treatment plan in precision/personalised medicine. This may result in a more effective and targeted treatment with fewer adverse effects.

Personalising medicine may be done in a variety of ways. Typical strategies include:

  • Genetic testing includes examining a person’s DNA to see if there are any mutations or variances that might impact their likelihood of contracting a certain disease or their reaction to a particular medication.
  • Biomarkers are quantifiable indications of a biological condition or state. Biomarkers can be used to monitor a patient’s response to therapy or to spot those who are most likely to catch a particular disease.
  • Environmental factors, such as pollutant exposure, food, and exercise impact how people respond to therapy as well as the development of many diseases.

Precision medicine is becoming more and more feasible as we understand more about the human genome and the part genetics plays in disease. We can create more effective and focused therapies that may result in improvement by taking into consideration a person’s particular demands.

Here are some examples of current applications of precision medicine:

  • High-risk cancer patients are identified via genetic testing, and targeted medicines are created that are more efficient for those who have certain genetic alterations.
  • Biomarkers are being utilised to monitor an individual’s risk of developing heart disease and to pinpoint those who will benefit from certain therapies the most.
  • Scientists are examining the genetic component of Alzheimer’s disease and creating targeted treatments that might be more efficient for those who carry particular genetic abnormalities.

Some of the challenges and limitations of precision medicine include cost, accuracy, accessibility, and regulation.

Personalised medicine is a promising subject with the potential to enhance millions of people’s lives despite these difficulties. It is anticipated to become more accessible, inexpensive, and accurate as technology advances.


Development of Telemedicine and Remote Healthcare 

Telemedicine and remote healthcare allow patients to receive care from a doctor or other healthcare provider without having to travel to a doctor’s office or hospital. This can help with healthcare access, particularly in remote locations. The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred telemedicine and remote healthcare development to a great extent. These services are increasingly enticing to patients and providers alike because of the requirement to maintain social distance and avoid in-person visits to healthcare institutions. There are several advantages to telemedicine and remote medical care, such as better access to healthcare, lower healthcare expenses, increased patient satisfaction, and better patient results.

Remote healthcare services and telemedicine come in a wide variety. The most popular ones are Tele-education, remote patient monitoring, and virtual doctor appointments.

Additionally, there are several drawbacks to telemedicine and remote treatment, such as security and privacy issues, a lack of financing, technical issues, and a shortage of skilled providers.

Despite these impediments, telemedicine and remote healthcare are expanding quickly and playing a bigger role in the healthcare system. These services are expected to become progressively more common and available as technology advances.

Here are some of the future trends in telemedicine and remote healthcare:

  • Increasing the use of artificial intelligence (AI): AI may be applied to personalise treatment regimens, increase the precision of diagnoses, and keep track of patient’s health.
  • Development of novel telehealth technology: More thorough and individualised treatment will be feasible thanks to new gadgets like wearable sensors and virtual reality headsets.
  • Expansion into new areas: Telemedicine and remote healthcare will be utilised to deliver care in new areas, such as managing chronic diseases and mental health.


Application of 3D Printing in Healthcare

3D printing in medicine is being used to create customised medical items including prostheses, implants, and surgical guides. This innovation might save expenditures while raising the standard of treatment. A rapidly developing technology, 3D printing has a wide range of potential uses in the healthcare sector. Among the most widespread applications of 3D printing in the medical field, some are mentioned below:

  • Producing patient-specific medical devices: 3D printing may be used to produce personalised medical items like implants, prostheses, and surgical guides that are tailored to the anatomy of a single patient. In addition to lowering the risk of problems, this can enhance the device’s fit and functionality.
  • Building medical models and educating healthcare professionals: 3D printing may be used to build accurate representations of the human body’s organs, tissues, and tumours. These models can be used to aid in the planning and execution of intricate treatments as well as the education of patients about their conditions. This can assist them in picking up new abilities and methods, as well as in practising approaches in a secure setting.
  • Creating novel medications and treatments: Tissue scaffolds for cell culture and intricate drug delivery systems may be made using 3D printing. This can aid in the development of novel treatments and medications by researchers for a number of disorders.
  • Customising care: Using 3D printing, it is possible to develop treatments and drugs that are specifically suited to the requirements of a certain patient. This might increase the therapy’s efficacy and security.

Here are some specific examples of how 3D printing is being used in healthcare today:

  • A company named Materialise has created a 3D-printed breast implant that is specifically designed for women with tuberous breasts. This type of breast deformity is often difficult to treat with traditional implants, but the 3D-printed implant can provide a more natural and comfortable fit.
  • A team of researchers at the University of California, San Diego has developed a 3D-printed surgical guide that can be used to remove brain tumors with greater precision and accuracy.
  • A company named Organovo has developed a 3D printer that can be used to create human tissue. This tissue can be used to study diseases, develop new drugs, and create personalized medical implants.

These are some of the numerous uses for 3D printing that are now being made in the medical field. As technology advances, it will probably have a bigger influence on the healthcare sector, enhancing the standard of treatment and enhancing accessibility for all.

The use of blockchain technology to increase the security and effectiveness of healthcare data exchange is one of the significant developments being made in the world of healthcare. Smart technologies, particularly wearable sensors, are being developed to extract therapeutically significant health-related data from physical (body) indicators like heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration rate, and body motion. The technology has now also come up with immersive virtual and augmented reality training and education in the medical field.

Advancements in technology, increased investment in global health, partnerships, collaborations among the government, organizations, and individuals, and innovations altogether make a significant contribution to addressing the challenges to global health and improving health outcomes. The rapid pace of technical improvement has made these developments feasible. These technologies will have a bigger influence on global healthcare as they advance.


Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of women, including the reproductive system, pregnancy, and childbirth. OBGYN is a compulsory clinical subject in the MBBS curriculum. Being an MBBS student, you will get hands-on experience in OBGYN during clinical rotations. You will observe and assist doctors in delivering babies, performing surgeries, and treating gynecological conditions. OBGYN is a challenging but rewarding field of medicine.

MBBS Prof Exam Pattern

The OBGYN Prof exam comprises two theory papers of 100 marks each and a practical examination of 200 marks. The theory exam consists of short-answer questions, long-answer questions, case-based questions, and objective-type questions. The practical examination includes clinical examination and viva.

Recommended books for Obstetrics and Gynecology

The most preferred books for studying OBGYN in MBBS are DC Dutta’s Textbook of Obstetrics (Including Perinatology and Contraception), DC Dutta’s Textbook of Gynecology, Shaw’s Textbook of Gynecology, Self-Assessment and Review Gynecology, Self-Assessment and Review Obstetrics, Bedside Clinics in Gynecology, and Ward Rounds in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Subject weightage in NEET-PG and INI-CET

Concentrate on early preparation for both professional exams and competitive exams, especially if you want to pursue postgraduate studies. The subject weightage of Obstetrics and Gynecology in NEET-PG is about 25–30 questions and about 15-20 questions in INI-CET. The subject weightage clearly shows the importance of the subject in both NEET-PG and INI-CET. Try not to miss any high-yielding topics in obstetrics and Gynecology.

High-yielding topics are a crucial component of a productive study plan that will improve your test-taking efficiency. You must carefully schedule your study sessions, giving priority to time management, the course’s high-yielding topics, and, most importantly, your health.

Important and High-Yielding Topics of OBGYN for MBBS Prof Exams, NEET-PG, and INI-CET

Carcinoma Cervix

Aetiology and Staging of Carcinoma Endometrium

Postmenopausal Bleeding in Diabetics and Hypertensives


Endometrial Ablation


Letrozole and Metformin Pharmacology

Ovulation Induction

Carcinoma Ovary Staging

Germ cell tumors, especially Dermoid and Dysgerminomas


Raloxofene and Bisphosphonates

HRT Indications and Contraindications

Testicular Feminization Syndrome

Treatment of CAH

Turners Syndrome

Klinefelter’s Syndrome

Antepartum and Intrapartum Surveillance


Biophysical profile and dynamics of amniotic fluid

Doppler of the Uterine Artery

Ductus venosus ‘M’ wave pattern

Malpresentation and Malposition

Placenta-accrete case

Management of PPH

Blood Component Therapy

Management of Shoulder Dystocia

Stages of labour

Ectopic Pregnancy

Molar Pregnancy

Cell-free DNA

Preterm Labour


Sterilisation Surgeries

COVID Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Cesarean section of childbirth

Ultrasound in Pregnancy

Diabetic Mother


Ca Cervix

Ovarian Cancer

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

Uterine Prolapse


Postmenopausal Bleeding

Contraception, especially Oral Contraceptive Pills


Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases

Stress Urinary Incontinence

Important Topics in OBGYN for the Practical Examination

OBGYN is a vast but rewarding clinical subject, and hence, it is highly crucial to learn and excel in the practical curriculum as well. During MBBS, you learn about the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system, as well as the diagnosis of common gynecological and obstetrical conditions. You also gain experience performing pelvic exams and other diagnostic procedures. To score well in MBBS practical exams, you should be familiar with the basic principles and procedures of OBGYN and be able to perform the essential clinical skills.

Some of the important topics for the OBGYN practical exam include:

Common Surgical Instruments

Pelvic Examination

History-taking and Clinical assessment of common OBGYN conditions

Bimanual Examination

Vaginal Ultrasound

Speculum Examination

Pap Smear: Cervical Cytology

Breast Examination



Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Normal Labor and Delivery

Postpartum Care

Gynecological Surgery Procedures

Here are some additional tips for preparing for the MBBS practical exams in OBGYN:

  • Practice performing the pelvic examination and other clinical skills on mannequins or other simulated patients.
  • Read textbooks, review articles, and case studies on OBGYN.
  • Attend lectures and tutorials on OBGYN procedures and examinations.
  • Shadow an OBGYN physician to get hands-on experience.
  • Take practice exams to assess your knowledge and skills.

By following these tips, you can be well-prepared for the MBBS practical exams in OBGYN.

To ace your examinations and escalate your learning, you can enroll in the OBGYN for Undergrads course by Dr. K. Srinivas. The content and video lectures in the course are aligned with the CBME curriculum and also incorporate knowledge from the various standard textbooks. This comprehensive course is well integrated with knowledge of clinical obstetrics and gynecological examinations, case discussions, and highly illustrative clinical and radiological images. This course by the eminent faculty provides access to video lectures, notes, self-assessment questions, and clinical cases.

Case discussions and Qbanks of Obstetrics and Gynecology acquaint the students with the commonly asked questions during the practical exam and viva voce. Hence, this course is ideal for OBGYN students to excel in Obstetrics and Gynecology subject and to eventually score high in MBBS theory exams, practical exams, viva voce, and competitive entrance exams.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. What is the difference between a gynecologist and an obstetrician?

Ans. An obstetrician is a doctor who specializes in the care of women and their babies during pregnancy and childbirth whereas a Gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of female reproductive disorders.

Q2. What are the high-yield topics in obstetrics and gynecology?

Ans. The high-yield topics in obstetrics and gynecology are Endometriosis, Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases, Stress Urinary Incontinence,

Postmenopausal bleeding in diabetics and hypertensives, Hysteroscopy, Endometrial Ablation, PCOS, Letrozole and metformin pharmacology, Antepartum and intrapartum surveillance, Malpresentation and malposition, Management of PPH, Blood component therapy, Management of Shoulder Dystocia and more.

Q3. Which book is best for OBG MBBS?

Ans. The most preferred books for studying OBGYN in MBBS are DC Dutta’s Textbook of Obstetrics (Including Perinatology and Contraception), DC Dutta’s Textbook of Gynecology, Shaw’s Textbook of Gynecology, Self-Assessment and Review Gynecology, Self-Assessment and Review Obstetrics, Bedside Clinics in Gynecology, and Ward Rounds in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology subject is included in the third prof of the MBBS curriculum. The main objective of teaching forensic medicine to undergraduate students is to create a doctor who is knowledgeable about medico-legal duty while practicing medicine. You will also be able to make observations and draw conclusions using logical inquiries into criminal situations and related medicolegal issues in the proper direction. You learn about applying law to medical practice, and adherence to medical ethics regulations.

MBBS Prof Exam Pattern

According to the CBME curriculum, the MBBS prof exam of the Forensic Medicine and Toxicology subject comprises one theory exam of 100 marks, and the practical examination (Practical/Clinical + Viva) of 100 marks. The theoretical exam has a variety of question types, such as structured essays (long answer questions, or LAQ), short response questions, and objective questions (MCQs and IBQs).

Recommended Books of FMT

Recommended books for FMT in MBBS include Review of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology and Recent Advances in Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (Volume-1 and 2) by Gautam Biswas, The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by KS Narayan Reddy and OP Murty, Forensic Medicine by J Magendran, and The Synopsis of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by KS Narayan Reddy.

Subject Weightage of FMT in NEET-PG and INI-CET

Concentrate on early preparation for both professional exams and competitive entrance exams, especially when you want to pursue postgraduate study. The two main entrance examinations in India are NEET-PG/NExT and INI-CET to get admission into PG courses. The subject weightage of the FMT subject is about 10 questions in NEET-PG and 8 questions in the INI-CET entrance examination.

Important Topics of FMT for MBBS Prof Exams, NEET-PG, and INI-CET Entrance Examination

High-yielding topics are a crucial component of a productive study plan that will improve your test-taking efficiency. You must carefully schedule your study sessions, giving priority to time management, the course’s high-yielding themes, and, most importantly, your health. FMT in MBBS is a multidisciplinary subject and is among the high-scoring subjects. The subject requires frequent revision for better retention.

Here’s a list of high-yielding topics of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology for NEET-PG, INI-CET, and MBBS Prof exams:

Medical Jurisprudence and Ethics

Functions of MCI

Functions of SMC

Professional Misconduct and Penal Erasure

Difference between Professional Negligence and Infamous Misconduct

Consent: Types, Exceptions, Age of Consent, Inform Consent, False Consent

Difference between Civil and Criminal Negligence

Res Ipsa Loquitur

Defenses against negligence

Acts Related to Medical Practice

Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994

Consumer Protection Act, 1986

Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971

Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012

The Mental Healthcare Act, 2017

Legal Procedure


Courts of Law

Difference between Dying Declaration and Dying Deposition

Exceptions to Oral Evidence

Duties of a doctor in the witness box

Capital Punishment

Type of Evidence and Witness



Cephalic index


Age determination by dentition, x-rays, and mandible

Gustafson’s method

MLI of age

MLI of scar, tattoo marks


Fingerprint Identification

Difference between antemortem and PM clot



Forensic Psychiatry




Difference between psychosis and neurosis

Lucid interval


Testamentary capacity

Section 84 IPC


Erectile Dysfunction and Sterility

Impotence, Sterility, Frigidity, Quod


Artificial Insemination

Surrogate mother

Causes of erectile dysfunction and sterility in males

Causes of impotence and sterility in females

Virginity, pregnancy, and delivery


Difference between true virgin and false virgin

Presumptive, probable, and positive signs of pregnancy

Superfecundation and superfetation and their MLI

Difference between nulliparous and parous uterus

Sexual Offences

Classification of sexual offences

Section 375 IPC

Punishment of rape 376 IPC

Examination of rape victim/survivor

Locard’s exchange principle



Sexual paraphilias types

Exhibitonism, frotteurism/toucherism

Seminal strains test


Grievous hurt, section 320 IPC

Joule burn

Classification of thermal injuries

Heat hyperpyrexia/Heat stroke


Difference between pugilistic attitude and rigor mortis

Skull fractures

Extradural/Epidural hematoma

Bullet types

Components of gun powder




Ectopic/Migratory bruise

Fabricated/forged wounds

Intracranial hemorrhages

Cold injuries- frostbite

Would ballistics


Causes/Classification of asphyxia deaths


Difference between hanging and strangulation

Cafe coronary syndrome

Post-mortem examination of a drowning case

Diatom test

Sexual asphyxia


Rigor mortis/Stiffness of death

Cadaveric spasm

Heat stiffening

Order of putrefaction


Brain stem death

Cause, manner, and mode of death

Sudden death

Tache noire

Infanticide and Child Abuse

Hydrostatic test

Cause of infant death

Shaken baby syndrome or infantile whiplash syndrome

Difference between live born, dead born, and stillborn fetus

Hydrostatic test


Section 284 IPC

Classification of poison

Organophosphorus compounds poisoning

Alphos poisoning


Chronic arsenic poisoning


Phossy jaw/Lucifer’s jaw/Glass jaw


Difference between true and artificial bruise

Signs and symptoms of Ophitoxemia

Snake poisoning

Section 85 IPC

Widmark’s formula


Date rape drugs


Poat-mortem artefacts

Transportation injuries

Confirmatory tests for blood

Medico-legal application of blood groups

Precipitin methods

To get conceptual clarity in the FMT modules and learn in a simplified manner, subscribe to DigiNerve’s online FMT course. The Forensic Medicine and Toxicology for UnderGrads course is well conceptualized by eminent faculty, Dr. Gautam Biswas according to the CBME curriculum. Application-based learning has been given top priority, and even the test question format is created to gauge students’ clinical expertise.   The training is designed for medical students to help them be ready for both their university examinations and the NEET PG/NExT Exam. The lectures for the course cover every relevant topic in an interesting manner. In order to help students comprehend ideas better, the course includes flowcharts, animations, brief films, diagrams, and well-integrated MCQs.

Click here to know the right way to approach FMT in MBBS.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. What are the important topics of FMT in MBBS?

Ans. The important topics of FMT in MBBS include Legal Procedure, Identification, Thanatology, Asphyxia, Injuries, Rape, General toxicology, OPC poisoning, Snakebite, Medicinal poisoning, Autopsy, fingerprint identification, Burns, Skull fracture, and more.

Q2. Which are the recommended books of Anatomy for MBBS students?

Ans. Recommended books for FMT in MBBS include Review of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology and Recent Advances in Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (Volume-1 and 2) by Gautam Biswas, The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by KS Narayan Reddy and OP Murty, Forensic Medicine by J Magendran, and The Synopsis of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by KS Narayan Reddy.

Q3. What is the weightage of FMT in the NEET PG exam?

Ans. The weightage of FMT in NEET PG is approximately 10 questions.

Q4. Where can I find an affordable yet comprehensive online course for forensic medicine?

The best forensic medicine online course 2023 is Forensic Medicine and Toxicology for UnderGrads by Dr. Gautam Biswas. The course is comprehensive, clinically up-to-date, and quite affordable.

National Medical Commission (Undergraduate Medical Education Board) on the notification dated 1st August 2023 released Competency Based Medical Education Curriculum (CBME) regulations 2023 for the MBBS programme. The latest CBME pattern elaborates on the subject competencies, broad subject-specific objectives, skills, and integration. The CBME regulations further include an academic calendar, schedule, training, new teaching/learning elements, phases of the MBBS curriculum, electives, clinical postings, and more.

Subjects Included in the MBBS Curriculum

Professional Year Subjects
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Pathology
  • Microbiology
  • Pharmacology
3rd (Part I)
  • Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
  • Community Medicine
3rd (Part II)
  • Medicine and Allied Subjects (General Medicine, Psychiatry, Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy (DVL), Respiratory Medicine including Tuberculosis)
  • Surgery and Allied Subjects (General Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedics (Including Trauma), Dentistry, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Anaesthesiology, and Radiodiagnosis)
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics

New Teaching/Learning Elements

  • Foundation Course
  • Early Clinical Exposure
  • Electives
  • Professional Development including Attitude, Ethics, and Communication Module (AETCOM)
  • Learner-doctor method of clinical training (Clinical Clerkship)
  • Assessment

The Latest CBME Curriculum for MBBS Programme Includes

1. Training Period and Time Distribution

The first professional year must commence through the Foundation Course by the 1st August of each year from the academic year 2024-25. The foundation course aims to orient medical students to the undergraduate MBBS programme and provide them with the requisite knowledge, communication (including electronic), and technical and language skills.

There shall be no admission of students in respect of any academic session beyond 30th August from the academic year 2024-25.

The duration of the MBBS course shall be the same, i.e., four and a half years divided into four professional years from the date of commencement of the course to the date of completion of the examination followed by one year of compulsory rotating internship.

There will be at least 39 teaching weeks in each academic year, with each day of work requiring no less than eight hours, including one for lunch.

Didactic lectures are allowed to make up no more than one-third of the timetable; the other two-thirds must include interactive sessions, practicals, clinicals, or group discussions.
For greater student comprehension, teaching and learning must be vertically and horizontally linked and integrated across specializations.

Early clinical exposure, problem-oriented learning, case studies, community-oriented learning, self-directed, experiential learning, and electives should all be included in a learner-centered curriculum.

University exams will be conducted at the end of every professional year.

There will be supplementary examinations in case the students fail to clear the university exam and the supplementary exam result shall be processed within 3-6 weeks from the declaration date of the main exam results.

There will be no supplementary batches and hence, if any candidates fail the supplementary exams will have to join the next/subsequent academic year batch.

Partial attendance in an examination shall be counted as an attempt.

2. MBBS Phase-wise Curriculum

Phase & Year of MBBS Training Duration Main Subjects Additional Curriculum University Examination
I 12 Months (including the foundation course of one week and university exams) Anatomy



Foundation Course

Introduction to Community Medicine, Humanities, Professional development including Attitude, Ethics & Communication (AETCOM) module.

Family adoption programme through village outreach where-in each student shall adopt a minimum of three (03) families and preferably at least five (05) families and Pandemic module.

Early clinical exposure, ensuring alignment & all types of integration and simulation-based learning.

1st Professional
II 12 Months Pathology



Family visit for FAP

Professional development including the AETCOM module.

Introduction to clinical subjects ensuring both alignment & all types of integration and simulation-based learning.

A part of training during clinical postings should take place at the primary level of health care.

2nd Professional
III 30 Months
III (Part 1) 12 Months (including university exams and a 1-month elective course) Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

Community Medicine

It also includes one month for Electives.

The curriculum includes Medicine & allied Surgery & allied, Pediatrics, and Obstetric & Gynecology foundational knowledge.


Pandemic module

Clinical Postings

Family Visits under FAP

Clinical teaching in General Medicine, General Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pediatrics, Orthopedics, Dermatology, Community Medicine, Psychiatry, Respiratory Medicine, Radio-diagnosis (& Radiotherapy), and Anesthesiology & Professional development.

Electives will be in 2 blocks of l5 days each in Final first; 1st block after the annual exam of III MBBS part I and 2nd block after the end of 1st elective

Final Professional – Part I
III (Part 2) 18 Months (including the university exam) Medicine and allied specialties (General Medicine, Psychiatry, Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy (DVL), Respiratory Medicine including Tuberculosis)

Surgery and allied specialties (General Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Ophthalmology, Orthopedics, Dentistry, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Anesthesiology, and Radiodiagnosis)

Obstetrics and Gynecology (including Family Welfare)



Clinical Postings

Final Professional Part – II

3. Foundation Course

The time duration of the foundation course is one week and additionally spread over 6 months at the discretion of the college.

Subjects/Contents Teaching Hours
Orientation 30
Skills Module 34
Field Visit to Community Health Center 08
Introduction to Professional Development & AETCOM Module 40
Sports, Yoga, and Extra-Curricular Activities 16
Enhancement of Language/Computer Skills 32
Total 160

4. Phase-wise Distribution of Teaching Hours

a. Teaching hours of First, Second, and Third Professional Part-1:

Time allotted: 12 months (approx. 52 weeks)

Time available: Approx. 39 weeks (excluding 13 weeks) (39 hours/week)

Prelim/University Exam & Results: 9 weeks

Vacation: 2 weeks

Public Holidays: 2 weeks

Time distribution in weeks: 39 weeks x 39 hours = 1521 hours for Teaching-Learning

b. Teaching Hours of Final MBBS Part-2:

Time allotted: 18 months (approx. 78 weeks)

Time available: Approx. 62 weeks (excluding 16 weeks) (39 hours/ week)

Prelim / University Exam & Results: 10 weeks Vacation: 3 weeks

Public Holidays: 3 weeks

Time distribution in weeks: 62 x 39 hrs = 2418 hrs available for Teaching- Learning

5. Clinical Posting

The Clinical Postings shall start from the II phases of the MBBS programme.

The duration of the Clinical Postings shall be 15 hours per week.

Clinical Posting Schedule in Weeks

Subjects Period of Training in Weeks Total Weeks
Electives 0 4 0 4
General Medicine 9 4 14 27
General Surgery 7 4 10 21
Obstetrics & Gynecology 7 4 10 21
Pediatrics 4 4 5 13
Community Medicine 4 4 0 8
Orthopaedics 2 2 4 8
Otorhinolaryngology 0 3 4 7
Ophthalmology 0 3 4 7
Psychiatry 0 2 4 6
Radio-diagnosis 0 0 2 2
Dermatology 2 2 2 6
Dentistry 1 0 0 1
Anaesthesiology 0 0 3 3
Total 33 36 62 134

6. Marks Distribution for Various Subjects for University Annual Examinations

For the university exams, there shall be two theory papers of 100 marks each and a practical examination of 100 marks for all the MBBS subjects of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd (Part 1) phases of MBBS (except FMT).

The Forensic Medicine and Toxicology subject comprises one theory paper of 100 marks and one practical examination of 100 marks.

The exams of Final MBBS exams shall be as per the NExT regulations.

7. Electives

Electives on topics in areas such as Research Methodology, Use of Artificial intelligence and Computers in Health and Medical Education, Health Management, Health economics, Indian System of Medicine, Medical Photography /Clinical Photography, Global Health, Evidence-based Medicine, Art and Music in Medicine, Literary Activities, etc. may be provided by the college/ institution.

Based on both electives, the learner is required to submit a learning log book.

75% attendance in the electives and submission of log book maintained during electives is required for eligibility to appear in the final MBBS examination/NEXT.

8. Eligibility to appear for the Professional Examination

For a student to be eligible to sit for examinations, there shall be a minimum of 75% attendance in theory and 80% in practicals.

Students will not be permitted to take the Third Professional – Part II examination/NEXT if they do not have at least 75% attendance in the electives.

9. Internal Assessment

Internal assessment includes participation in the learning process including assignments, preparation for seminars, clinical case presentation, preparation of clinical cases for discussion, clinical case study/problem-solving exercises, and participation in projects for health care in the community.

Internal marks are not added to the summative assessment.

Competencies and skills marked in daily records and the log book are considered for the internal assessment evaluation.

There must be a minimum of three internal assessments for each topic in the first and second professional years, and a minimum of two assessments for each subject in the third and final professional years. Each clinical posting in a given professional year must have a post-posting clinical assessment done.

To be eligible to appear at the final university examination for a given subject, students must receive at least 50% of the total marks (combined in theory and practical in clinical; not less than 40% in theory and practical separately) in internal assessment in that subject. The results of the internal evaluations will count towards a distinct head of passing on the final test.

10. University Examinations and Result

The Prof exam shall include Long-Answer Questions -LAQ), Short-Answer Questions (SAQ), and objective-type questions.

A viva/oral examination shall evaluate the candidate’s approach to patient management, emergency preparedness, attitude, ethics, and professional values. The ability of the candidate to read standard investigative data, X-rays, specimen identification, ECGs, etc. will also be evaluated.

If a subject has two theory papers, the learner must receive at least 40% aggregate of the possible marks on the combined total of the two papers to pass the subject.

A candidate must receive 50% aggregate marks and 60:40 (minimum) or 40:60 (minimum) in a university-conducted examination, taken separately for Theory and Practical (which includes viva voce and practical/clinical components) in order to be declared as passed in that subject.
There shall be no grace marks to be considered for passing an examination.

A candidate cannot enroll in the second professional if they fail the first professional examination.

A candidate who fails the second professional examination may enroll in the third professional part I training, but he or she may not sit for the exam until the second professional examination has been passed.

A candidate who does not pass the third Professional (Part I) test will be permitted to enroll in the third Professional Part II training, but he will not be permitted to sit for the examination until the second Professional examination has been passed.

Click here to get conceptual clarity over MBBS subjects.

The Chapter 2 of the NMC Update describes the broad outline of the National Exit Exam, including general features of steps 1 and 2, NExT scores, nature of scores, minimum passing score, etc.

General Features of the NExT Exam

The NExT Exam shall comprise two separate exams referred to as “Steps”.

Step 1: Theoretical Examination

Step 2: Practical/Clinical and Viva Voce Examination


NExT Step 1

1.NExT Step 1 shall be a theoretical and Computer-based/Online examination.

2. It shall comprise one or more types of multiple-choice questions.

3. This shall be a Centralized Common All India Examination that will be held by a body designated by the commission as the conducting authority.

4. The examination shall include six papers covering topics from both Part 1 and 2 of the III MBBS/Final MBBS programme:

  • Medicine and allied disciplines
  • Surgery and allied disciplines
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Ophthalmology

(Applied aspects of all subjects covered under I MBBS and II MBBS and Applied aspects of all subjects covered under III MBBS/Final MBBS Part l)

5. Students who have completed their III MBBS/Final MBBS course from a recognized medical college shall be eligible to appear for the examination.

6. NExT Step 1 Examination shall be held twice a year in the months of May and November tentatively.

7. There shall be no restriction on the number of attempts to participate in NExT Step 1 provided that the candidate has completed both the NExT Step 1 and NExT Step 2 exams within ten years of enrolling in the MBBS Course.

8. There is no cap on the number of times for attempting the NExT Step 1 Regular Examination to improve your score but you can only go for the improvement after completing your NExT Step 2.

9. The III MBBS/Final MBBS Part 1 and III MBBS/Final MBBS Part II Practical/clinical examinations will continue to be held conventionally unless otherwise stated by the Commission and the NExT Step 1 will replace the traditional university/institutional Theory Examinations of the III MBBS/Final MBBS Part II.


NExT Step 2

1. The NExT Step 2 shall be a Practical/Clinical and viva voce examination comprising seven clinical subjects/disciplines:

  • Medicine and allied disciplines
  • Surgery and allied disciplines
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedics and PMR (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)

2. The exam shall be objectively structured, clinical case-based, and use simulated cases and patients to evaluate practical and clinical skills as well as clinical decision-making and communication abilities expected of an Indian medical graduate.

3. The exam must be taken in person or live, and it must be administered by the relevant state health universities or institutions in accordance with the norms and directives given by the Commission. The Commission will choose the university or institution that is permitted to conduct NExT Step 2 for the relevant colleges where there are no state health universities.

4. The Regular NExT Step 2 Exam shall be held twice a year.

5. A NExT Step 2 Supplementary Examination is only open to candidates who have failed in one or more (up to three) of the seven subjects and are required to repeat specific subjects. It will be held twice a year. If a candidate fails in more than three subjects, then they will have to appear in supplementary exams of all the seven subjects.

7. As long as the candidate has completed both the NExT Step 1 and NExT Step 2 Examinations within ten years of enrolling in the MBBS programme, there is no restriction on the number of attempts to participate in NExT Step 2.

NExT Scores

1. Nature of Scoring

  1. The marks in NExT Step 1 must be calculated as a whole number, which will serve as the Raw Scores with the proper decimals. Also, equivalent Percentages (marks out of a maximum of 100) with the proper decimals may then be calculated.
  2. The outcomes of the NExT 2 exams will only be reported as Pass/Fail depending on the acquisition of the relevant competence that is being evaluated.

2. Minimum scores for passing

  1. The minimum score to pass shall be 50% of the total or half of the maximum possible Raw for NExT Step 1.
  2. To pass the NExT Step 1 exam, you must receive a minimum of 50% (50 out of 100) in each of the six papers or half of the maximum possible Raw Scores.
  3. The requirements for passing NExT Step 2 include a successful demonstration of having acquired the competencies that are evaluated, with a pass/fail result being given.

3. Calculation of NExT Step 1 scores for determining merit for the purpose of admission to Postgraduate courses in broad specialties

  1. The sum of the raw scores earned in each paper or topic in a single NExT 1 exam will be used to calculate the Total Marks for determining the merit, particularly for admission to broad specialization Postgraduate Courses.
  2. The candidate must follow the generation of a rank application process as stipulated by the Commission from time to time in order to determine rank for admission into Postgraduate courses in broad specializations in a given academic year. Only individuals who have submitted an application for rank generation will be eligible for admission for that cycle of the academic year.
  3. The NExT Step results will be valid for five years in order to determine merit, notably for admission to broad-specialty postgraduate courses. If a candidate has appeared in the NExT exam cycle then the score of the latest given NExT step 1 exam will be considered.
  4. Tie-breaker rule for rank generation:
    • Normalized sum of raw scores obtained in each paper in NExT step 1 although the method of normalization will be notified later.
    • Candidate with the lower attempts in NExT step 1 will be placed higher in the merit list.
    • Candidates will be given higher rank based on the higher marks in the following order of preference:
      1. Medicine and allied disciplines
      2. Surgery and allied disciplines
      3. Obstetrics and Gynecology
      4. Pediatrics
      5. Otorhinolaryngology
      6. Ophthalmology

4. Utility of NExT Scores

  1. An MBBS student from a college recognized by the Commission shall be eligible for compulsory internship only if they pass in each of the six theory papers of NExT Part 1 and also pass in III MBBS/Final MBBS (Part 2) Practical/Clinical Examination.
  2. A medical student who has completed their undergraduate studies abroad at an institution recognized by the Commission and who has met the necessary requirements outlined in the Commission’s Foreign Medical Graduate Regulations is eligible to participate in the mandatory rotating internship programme only if they pass in all six NExT Step 1 Theory Papers.
  3. A medical graduate who received their training in India or outside of India will be entitled to register in the Indian Medical Register and State Medical Register and obtain a license to practice modern medicine in India, only if, they have completed the internship for the appropriate length of time and have successfully passed the NExT Step 2 (Practical / Clinical) Examination. You must fulfill all the requirements as per the Registration of Medical Practitioners and Licence to practice Medicine Regulations, of NMC. Also, all the other requirements are considered appropriate by the Commission, Concerned University/Institution and duly applicable at that time.
  4. For admission to PG medical courses in broad specialty subjects, a candidate must meet the following criteria:
    • Candidates must meet the conditions outlined for NExT Part 1 and 2, making them eligible for a license to practice modern medicine in India.
    • Must engage in common counselling by a designated authority granted by the Central Government or Commission.
  5. The NExT Step I Scores may be used by the Government of India, the State Governments, any organization of the Government of India, the State Governments, or any autonomous or private body/institution for the purpose of employment, provided that the necessary authorization has been sought and authorized by the National Medical Commission or other appropriate authorities as determined to be appropriate.

Click Here to Read NMC NExT Exam Update – Chapter 1 (Preliminary)

Click Here to Read NMC NExT Exam Update – Chapter 3 (General Information)

The NExT Exam latest news includes Chapter 1 (Preliminary) and Chapter 2 (Broad Outline) and Chapter 3 (General Information).

The core objective of the NExT exam is to provide consistency in summative evaluations conducted across the nation in relation to the minimal requirements for a medical graduate’s education and training.

The National Exit Test (NExT), shall serve as a licentiate examination for validating a medical graduate’s eligibility to register for practice the contemporary system of medicine in India.

NExT will also act as an entrance exam for admission to PG medical education in broad medical specialties by determining the eligibility and ranking of the MBBS students.


The National Exit Exam shall be applicable to:

  1. All undergraduate medical students seeking the MBBS degree at all medical colleges that have been accredited by the National Medical Commission along with Institutes of National Importance (INIs) are subject to the National Exit Test (NExT).
  2. All foreign medical graduates who have been granted approval by the NMC for the purposes of obtaining a license to practice medicine as a registered medical practitioner in India and for enrollment in the State Register or the National Register in such a manner as may be specified by regulations.
  3. Anyone with a medical degree aiming to pursue an academic course, an observership, or any other purpose that may be specified and allowed by the NMC by appropriate notification or rules from time to time.
  4. Anyone with the granted medical license practicing in India wishes to pursue PG degree can take the NExT exam.


According to the draft released, the NExT comprises two separate examinations, referred to as “Steps”.

Step 1: Theoretical Examination
Step 2: Practical/Clinical and Viva Voce Examination


The Commission shall from time to time determine, by appropriate regulations and/or notification, the applicable method of employing the NExT results for admission to Postgraduate Courses in wide medical specialties by means of common counselling by the designated authority.

There is no confirmation yet on the academic session to which the NExT exam will be applicable but when it will come into force, all other corresponding and equivalent examinations shall be phased/ceased out.

It is still to be decided by the Commission Central Government, State Government, that the existing examinations, however, shall continue for as long as may be necessary or the analogous existing exams will be replaced by the NExT. The Commission will decide when it is necessary and will notify the use of scores and normalization of various examinations and the NExT, when applicable concurrently, for such purposes as may be appropriate.

Chapters 2 and 3 of the update include the complete structure of the NExT Examination, objectives, exam pattern, eligibility, distribution of subjects, nature of scoring, timetables, and more.

Click Here to Read NMC NExT Exam Update – Chapter 2 (Broad Outline)

Click Here to Read NMC NExT Exam Update – Chapter 3 (General Information)

After completing 12th standard, students who want to pursue their career in medicine must take the NEET-UG entrance examination. Around 15 lakh aspirants appeared for the exam last year which itself is a huge number for a total of about 78,000 thousand medical seats in India. Hence, it is highly competitive to get admission into the MBBS programme. As the NEET-UG exam is approaching on May 7 this year, students should polish their skills and stick to their preparation strategy. Strictly following the preparation tips and putting consistent efforts will keep you ahead of the competition.

Here’s are some last-minute reliable preparation tips for the NEET-UG Exam.

Practice mock paper with your timers on: This will help you in analyzing the exam pattern, evaluating your level of understanding of the topic, and of course, developing time management skills.

Solve previous year question papers: Solve previous year papers of at least last 10 years. This will give you an idea about the exam pattern, type of questions asked from the chapter and topic. It will boost your confidence.

Don’t study from multiple resources at the last moment: Before exams, always prefer to study from NCERT books and notes. This will help you with quick revision and covering the entire syllabus with focusing more on the important topics for NEET-UG exam.

Refrain from studying new chapters and concepts: The NEET-UG 2023 syllabus is vast, and it is not possible to grasp everything in one go. In case you have missed any difficult concept, refrain from starting anything in the last days because studying any topic from the beginning and then making notes is time taking which in turn increases pressure and workload. Instead, it is advised to practice the topics you have already learned and have a tight grasp over it.

Put consistent efforts: As the syllabus is quite extensive and the level of complexity is high, you must put in consistent effort to practice and revise every topic properly.

Practice, Practice and Practice: Practice as much as questions you can. Practise formulae, flowcharts, schematic diagrams, tables, graphs, remember the conversions and values of the variables, and other crucial topics. It plays a critical role in scoring well in the exams.  Write and learn all the shortcut approaches which are easy to memorize the concept and recall during exam.

Prioritize Chapters: Prioritize the maximum weightage and important topics during the last period of your preparation.

Important Units of Physics for NEET-UG:

  • Mechanics
  • Heat and Thermodynamics
  • Waves
  • Magnetism
  • Modern Physics
  • Electricity
  • Optics

Important Units of Chemistry for NEET-UG:

  • Atomic structure
  • Equilibrium
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids
  • s, p, d, and f -block Elements
  • Hydrocarbons

Important Units of Biology for NEET-UG: 

  • Evolution
  • Biotechnology
  • Structural organisation in animals
  • Animal kingdom
  • Biomolecules
  • Plant physiology
  • Cell & Cell Cycle
  • Genetics
  • Ecology
  • Diversity of Living Organisms
  • Human Physiology
  • Human Health and Diseases
  • Human Reproduction

Maintain your physical and mental health and take proper sleep: Maintaining good health is equally important as effective preparation. It is advised to take some time to meditate and exercise and keep yourself healthy. Remain calm and don’t overexert yourself. Negligence in terms of health will keep all your efforts at stake.

Be confident: Don’t panic in the last days of your preparation. Revise thoroughly what you have prepared so far and avoid comparing yourself with your fellows. Have faith in yourself and stick to your preparation, just avoid procrastination. Identify your pain areas, clear your doubts and practice more.

Prepare in advance: Read all the instructions provided on the admit card and strictly adhere to it. Avoid carrying the barred items and get dressed as per the NEET-UG exam dress code. Arrange all your required documents and valid ID proof for the exam day prior.

Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Keep in mind that if you fall sick all your efforts will go in vain. Hence, take proper sleep, eat healthy food, and do exercises to keep yourself healthy.

Do’s and Don’ts on the Exam Day

  • Check your exam centre location prior to your exam or visit once to avoid being late on your exam day.
  • Go through the instructions regarding exam day, dress code, barred items, required documents and photographs and more.
  • Be very careful while bubbling in the OMR answer sheet.
  • Start your exam with the subject you are more confident in and manage your time effectively.
  • Don’t waste your time in thinking over a question much and do the next.
  • Don’t rely on guesswork. There is a negative marking in the NEET-UG exam and hence, guesswork can reduce your overall score.
  • Strictily adhere to the dresscode guidelines issues by NEET authority.
  • Concentrate on your last-minute revision.
  • Don’t let yourself feel dehydrated.
  • Remain focused and attentive.
  • Read all the instructions carefully before starting the exam to avoid any mistake.
  • Double check your OMR sheet before submitting.
  • Do not carry any barred/prohibited items.
  • Stay positive and determined.

List of Barred Items

  • Any type of study material, and stationery items such as, papers, pens, writing pads, geometry boxes, logbook, calculator, etc.
  • Any communication devices such as mobile phones, Bluetooth, earphones, microphones, health band, smart watches, etc.
  • Accessories like watch, wallet, bracelets, googles, cap, etc.
  • Any ornaments and metallic items
  • Any food item and beverage
  • Any kind of cheating material

Things to carry at the Examination Day

  • You must carry the following things to the Exam Centre:
    • NEET-UG admit card with the passport size photograph affixed on it
    • One passport size photograph to be affixed on the attendance sheet
    • Valid Identity proof and PwBD certificate, if required
    • Proforma downloaded with the admit card and one post card size photograph (4” * 6”) with white background must be affixed on the proforma and hand over to the invigilator at the exam centre.

Dress Code

You must follow the instructions regarding the dress code. If you don’t follow dress code, it will create chaos during frisking and you will be not allowed to sit in the exam. You must keep the following things in mind:

  • Long sleeves clothes are not allowed to wear.
  • Clothes with large buttons are not allowed.
  • Accessories like studs, earrings, rings, etc. are not allowed.
  • If any candidate is coming in the cultural customary dress for examination at any exam centre, you must report at least an hour before the reporting time.
  • Shoes are not permitted. Slippers, sandals, and low heel footwear are allowed.

Your consistent efforts and determination will pay off, just have faith in yourself.

Click here to know more about NEET-UG Entrance Examination.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. What is the exam date of NEET UG 2023?

Ans. The NEET-UG entrance exam will be held on 7th May, 2023.

Q2. What is the pass mark for NEET?

Ans. The cut off marks for NEET-UG as per 2022 is 117 out of 720. But these cut-off marks are not to get admission to variety of medical undergraduate courses.

Q3. Which is the conducting body for NEET-UG?

Ans. The NEET-UG entrance examination is conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA).

Q4. Which dresses are not allowed for NEET?

Ans. You must keep the following things in mind:

  • Long sleeves clothes are not allowed to wear.
  • Clothes with large buttons are not allowed.
  • Accessories like studs, earrings, rings, etc. are not allowed.
  • If any candidate is coming in the cultural customary dress for examination at any exam centre, you must report at least an hour before the reporting time.
  • Shoes are not permitted. Slippers, sandals, and low heel footwear are allowed.

The subjects included in the fourth year of MBBS curriculum are General Medicine, Dermatology, Psychiatry, General Surgery, Anaesthesiology, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pediatrics.

A medical student must always refer to the latest editions of the book to get the updated information revised according to the CBME curriculum.

Here’s a list of recommended books for MBBS 4th Year students:

Best Books for General Medicine

Book Author Desciption
An Insider’s Guide to Clinical Medicine  Archith Boloor & Anudeep Padakanti
  • This is one of the best books of Medicine for the undergraduate students.
  • The Key Features of the book are:

✓  X-rays, Spotters, Common Medicines, and Instruments are included that assists in making an early diagnosis.

✓  Contains thorough material organised in little boxes and figures, making it a convenient resource for revision.

✓  Discusses model cases and conventional presentations.

✓  Only book including chapters on mental disorders, geriatric evaluation, and rheumatology.

✓  Case sheet and diagnostic formats are included for cases in each system.

✓  With clear conceptual explanations and lots of visual memory aids, it is simple to read.

Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Medicine Archith Boloor & Ramadas Nayak
  • The book caters all the MBBS undergraduates and PG aspirants.
  • The information that has been absorbed over so many years is the core of this book.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Includes all the reading material a medical student at the undergraduate level would need.

✓  Simple to read, filled with visual memory and intellectual explanations.

✓  It is a ready reckoner since it contains complete information in little boxes and figures.

✓  High-yield points for the MRCP, NEET, and other competitive examinations have been included.

Self-Assessment & Review Medicine (Part A & B) Mudit Khanna
  • For the PG entrance exam preparation, this book is a must.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  ‘Essential Revision Notes’ are provided before each chapter to revise all relevant and crucial topics in a more systematic manner.

✓  The book methodically approaches “medicine” by segmenting its information into clinical chapters and then into logical ideas and themes.

✓  Harrison’s and CMDT’s most recent editions have been completely updated and reviewed in the book.

✓  Presents the most crucial information in a way that is “simple to recall,” including flow diagrams and tabulation.

✓  Includes a big database of questions from prior entrance exams.

✓  Dedicated section for IBQs.

Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (Volume I & Volume II) J. Larry Jameson, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, Dan L. Longo, & Joseph Loscalzo
  • The book is updated with recently authorised treatments, new practice-altering recommendations, and evidence summaries.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  More than a thousand clinical, pathological, and radiographic images, and schematic diagrams are included.

✓  Clinically relevant decision trees and algorithms for diagnosis and treatment are included.

✓  The latest version has been completely updated with pertinent new chapters and significant revisions throughout the field of internal medicine.

Best Books for General Surgery


Book Author Description
SRB’s Manual of Surgery Sriram Bhat M
  • The book comprises three sections – General Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgeries, and Specialties & Other Surgeries—covering every area of surgery.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Each chapter begins with surgical anatomy and physiology, important pertinent investigations, and a discussion of many issues in a systematic order to give readers a flow of ideas and materials with clear language.

✓  Every chapter is aligned in accordance with the CBME curriculum.

✓  Case scenarios are supplemented with brief clinical details and related images.

✓ Throughout all chapters, novel therapy modalities, concepts, and recent advancements are introduced.

✓  The book provides complimentary online learning resources:

    • Clinically Integrated MCQs
    • Clinical Cases
    • Clinical Examination Videos
Surgery Essence Pritesh kumar Singh
  • The latest edition is completely revised and updated as per new CBME curriculum along with the recent advancements.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  The annexures contain triads, signals, investigations of options, and subjects based on the “most prevalent” types of questions to save time and aids in revision.

✓  IBQs are added for the PG entrance exam preparation.

✓  Synopsis is included before questions to help students understand the ideas and save time.

✓  New pattern based on NBE (wider coverage, concept development, one-liner approach) is included.

✓  Solved Multiple-Choice Questions (PGMEEs 2022-1985), including all recent ones (2022-2013) are added.

✓  Crucial information is highlighted in gold.

✓  Line diagrams and mnemonics are also provided.

SRB’s Clinical Methods in Surgery Sriram Bhat M
  • The latest edition of the book is thoroughly according to the new CBME curriculum.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Each chapter includes information on clinical assessment techniques, investigations, and a concise summary of all surgically relevant disorders.

✓  Basic general examinations are appropriately described using examples.

✓  Provides thorough instructions for clinical evaluation along with top-notch images and graphics.

✓  The book emphasises the need of thorough clinical examinations for determining the best diagnosis, course of therapy, and follow-up.

✓  Every topic includes discussion of differential diagnosis.

✓  Several chapters offer case discussions to show students how precisely clinical examination questions are phrased.

✓  Clinical pearls are included as surgical wisdom in a few chapters and are crucial while treating surgical patients.

✓  At the conclusion, there are chapters on instruments, X-rays, and specimens for a rapid glance during the practical exam in surgery.

✓  Students can scan the QR codes and access the case demonstration videos(typical surgical situations).

Bailey & Love’s Short Practice of Surgery: International Student’s Edition (set volume 1 & 2) Norman Williams, P Ronan O’Connell & Andrew McCaskie
  • This book continues to be a trusted companion of medical students and surgeons and is a collection of the fundamental knowledge required for safe surgical practice.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Chapter contains summary boxes with important information throughout the text.

✓  Tables, pictures, and diagrams’ uniform design and format make it easier to grasp difficult ideas.

✓  Also contains algorithms to help the reader comprehend patient care pathways.

✓  The book highlights recent significant advancements in surgical practise and those that are predicted to have a significant impact over the next ten years.

✓  Also covers paediatric surgery and organ transplantation in more detail.

✓  Readers may access supplemental material on the dedicated Bailey & Love website, which also has extended content, videos, and other tools.

✓  The pillars of safe clinical practise continue to be a thorough history taking, observation, logical reasoning, technical expertise, and postoperative patient care and is explained in the book for the students.

Best Book for Psychiatry


Book Author Description
Review of Psychiatry Praveen Tripathi
  • It is one of the bestselling books of Psychiatry.
  • The latest edition of the book is thoroughly updated with the PG entrance exam questions.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been completely revised (DSM-5).

✓  This book has been developed keeping in mind the demands of students preparing for different postgraduate entrance examinations and MCI screening test.

✓  Updated completely with ICD-11.

✓  INI-CET pattern questions have been updated.

✓  Issues like the Mental Health Care Act have been updated.

✓  Updated based on the 10th editions of the Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry by Kaplan and Sadock and the 7th edition of the Short Textbook of Psychiatry.

✓  Includes IBQs.

Best Books for Pediatrics


Book Author Description
Review of Pediatrics & Neonatology Apurv Mehra, Meenakshi Bothra Gupta & Taruna Mehra
  • This is a best-selling review book on paediatrics and neonatology.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  To help students become familiar with current trends and test patterns, the book is enhanced with more than 3200 MCQs that are organised chronologically with recent questions.

✓  Provides a brief, point-by-point summary of each chapter, including high-yield points, mnemonics, and flow diagrams.

✓  The chapters have been divided into three sections: General Paediatrics, Neonatology, and Systemic Paediatrics.

✓  Developmental stages, prominent characteristics of significant metabolic illnesses, significant genetic syndromes, a list of “Most Common” and many other crucial high-yielding topics for last-minute review are included in the annexures.

✓  Over 500 completely coloured photos are included.

✓  Under the guise of an “integrated approach,” questions with an emphasis on images have been offered.

Ghai Essential Pediatrics Vinod K. Paul & Arvind Bagga
  • A top-notch paediatrics textbook is OP Ghai Pediatrics.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Excellently drawn tables, graphs, and flowcharts are provided throughout the book and explanations are simple to grasp.

✓  Every chapter generally has “Suggested Reading” at the conclusion in case a student wishes to go more into the subject.

✓  The chapters on growth, adolescent health, vaccination, infection, the gastrointestinal system, malignancies, and inborn metabolic defects have all undergone considerable rewriting and revision in the latest edition.

✓  With a wide range of distinguished authors, this paediatrics textbook is the most favoured and trusted in India for both undergraduate and graduate students.

Exam preparatory Manual for Undergraduates: Pediatrics  Snehal Patel, Halak Vasavada
  • It is an ‘All in one’ book that covers theory, applications, PG entrance questions, and clinical practise content.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Sample case presentations with frequently asked questions in viva are part of a special practical paediatrics chapter.

✓  A brand-new chapter on Covid-19 and the Covid 19 vaccinations contains myths, tragedies, and brilliant ideas is included in the latest edition of the book.

✓  For typical ward operations and competences, there are brief video snippets.

✓  Include clinical case studies at the conclusion of each chapter.

✓  Rational investigative technique, bedside realistic interpretations of frequent investigations are included.

✓  Important clinical tips in each topic—a must remember.

✓  Using flowcharts, tables, and figures, create a reader-friendly question-and-answer presentation.

UG Textbook of Pediatrics Piyush Gupta
  • The NMC’s 35 Subjects and 406 key Competencies are precisely the emphasis of the revised edition of the book.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Diagrams, flowcharts, and clinical pictures are abundant throughout the book to aid with comprehension and recall. They really make up the majority of the book.

✓  The text is succinct, to the point, and yet comprehensive; it is interwoven with numerous Tables and Boxes, where necessary.

✓  Case Studies that demonstrate the typical outcomes of common diseases in children are sprinkled throughout the book as an addition.

✓  Each significant topic is followed by “In A Nutshell” overview of the main ideas. So, only reading these boxes can revise the entire text.

✓  The sentences are brief, the paragraphs are concise, and the jargon has been deconstructed to make the text easier to read.

✓  The design uses colour coding to identify treatment, case studies, revision points, tables, boxes, and recommended reading.

Best Books for Orthopaedics


Book Author Description
Essential Orthopedics: Principles & Practice (2 Volumes)  Manish Kumar Varshney
  • It is one of the best books on orthopaedics for MBBS students.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Updated and thoroughly edited to reflect the latest developments in the treatment of elective orthopaedic disorders.

✓  An orthopaedic trauma primer with a list of frequently occurring fractures has been included to the annexures.

✓  The foundational sciences of orthopaedics have been thoroughly covered.

✓  To establish linkage, sections are separated into bodily areas.

✓  The growth of Malunions, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Preoperative Planning, Nanotechnology, Orthopedics in the Digital Renaissance, and Neglected Trauma to Bones and Joints (Annexure 4) are a few of the new chapters that have been introduced.

✓  Addition of a large number of pertinent images and figures, as well as tabulation.

✓  Enhanced with more than 2200 insightful graphics.

Fundamentals of Orthopedics Mukul Mohindra & Jitesh Kumar Jain
  • The latest edition of the book is an up-to-date, concise, and comprehensive bundle to address theory and practical exams as well as the current pattern of exams.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Simplifies and thoroughly covers orthopaedic problems that are on the edge, including the spine, polytrauma, metabolic bone disorders, arthritis, skeletal dysplasia, brachial plexus palsy, thoracic outlet syndrome, and soft tissue sarcomas.

✓  New chapter on sports injuries and their recovery is introduced.

✓  Offers more than 1000 well labelled photos with similes that show all clinical and radiological symptoms in orthopaedics as well as commonly used tools and implants.

✓  Discusses High-Yield Points at the conclusion of each topic that are directed towards the prevalent style of multiple-choice questions (MCQs)

✓  Includes questions from previous year’s MCQs with textual references for the answers.

Orthopedics Quick Review (OPQR) Apurv Mehra
  • OPQR has emerged as the go-to option for PG aspirants and is the best-selling book for orthopaedics globally.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Succinct is exam-oriented material.

✓  Flowcharts that are self-explanatory.

✓  Images and diagrams that complement the text can help pupils comprehend fundamental ideas more clearly.

✓  Simple to remember mnemonics.

✓  After each chapter are possible Retro Analysis questions.

✓  “Summary of Ortho” is provided for quick review.

✓  Every student aiming for the Top Ranks in the PGMEE must read OPQR because Ortho is a subject that determines rank.

✓  In each topic, important topics are underlined.

✓  Genuine High Yield Questions with a fast revision designation are provided.

Chapman’s Comprehensive Orthopaedic Surgery (5 Vols.) Michael W Chapman & Michelle A James
  • The latest edition of Chapman’s Comprehensive Orthopaedic Surgery is practically a brand-new book.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Offers in-depth coverage of the diagnosis, medical, surgical, and rehabilitative aspects of musculoskeletal problems.

✓  The 285 chapters and 12 speciality divisions are included.

✓  Detailed coverage with more than 13,000 additional tables, flowcharts, and 3D images in full colour are provided.

✓  Surgery methods are bulleted.

✓  Boxes on Pitfalls, Complications, and Tips & Tricks are provided.

✓  ‘Information at a glance’ is crucial thanks to the authors’ point of view.

✓  The digital edition comes with improved functionality and a video library. Videos are included in Chapters 45, 48, 138, 156, 158, 193, 259, 263, and 281.

Essential Orthopaedics  Maheshwari & Mhaskar
  • After 25 years of publication, this book is still a favourite among students studying medicine and physiotherapy.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  It becomes “all-in-one” book for UG students and residents when an annexure on “Clinical Methods” is included.

✓  Free online resources include clinical cases, multiple-choice questions, and practise tests.

✓  There are Competency/Learning Goals listed at the start of each chapter.

✓  A section titled “Additional Information: From the Point of View of Entrance Exams” is provided at the end of each chapter.

✓  Reviewing the definitions of various orthopaedic terminologies is made easier by the annexed “Orthopaedic Terminology” section.

✓  Each chapter ends with a question titled “What have we learned?” for a fast recap.

✓  For improved readability and comprehension, some graphics and X-rays have been changed.

Manipal Manual of Orthopaedics Vivek Pandey
  • The book is highly beneficial for MBBS students and may also be beneficial for postgraduates to review orthopaedics at the fundamental level.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Content is readable, accurate, and pertinent.

✓  For ease of comprehension, the whole material has been split into two sections: trauma and cold orthopaedics.

✓  Includes pertinent graphs, flowcharts, schematics, and radiographs.

✓  For ease of comprehension and writing in exams, the majority of conditions provide the therapy as an algorithm with a written explanation.

✓  Has a tonne of revision boxes with Key Information, Notes, and Points-to-Remember highlighted.

✓  A brief description of the anatomy precedes each condition, which is then followed by pathology, clinical signs, a diagnosis, tests, and treatments.

Best Books for Obstetrics & Gynecology


Book Author Description
DC Dutta’s Textbook of Obstetrics (Including Perinatology & Contraception) Hiralal Konar
  • The book is developed in accordance with the Competency-based Medical Education Curriculum (NMC).
  • The book is suitable for the undergraduates, postgraduates and nursing students.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Content is written in clear, plain language.

✓  Every chapter has the same, uniform information.

✓  790 line drawings, pictures, photographs, boxes, tables, flowcharts, MR images, ultrasonograms, and skiagrams are included to enhance the text.

✓  Each chapter has undergone a comprehensive update and reorganisation to reflect modern obstetric treatment of the highest calibre.

✓  A lot of revisions and updates have been made to Ch. 13 Normal Labor, Ch. 39 Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring, Ch. 31, 32, and 33 on Perinatal Care, and Ch. 34 Analgesia and Anesthesia in Obstetrics.

✓  For ease of navigation, a list of the most used acronyms has been supplied.

✓  The supplemental reading material for advanced learning can be accessed with the QR codes. This strategy aims to support and get graduate students ready for their numerous exams.

DC Dutta’s Textbook of Gynecology Hiralal Konar
  • The book’s user-friendly layout and thoroughness make it a great resource.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  This book’s presentation, which includes high-quality graphics and design, voluminous illustrations (366), excellent pictures (330), and imaging studies, is what makes it stand out.

✓  There are several tables, boxes, flowcharts, and algorithms included for repeatability and simplicity of study.

✓  The essential points are at the end of each chapter to offer an outline overview of the whole chapter. This is helpful for quick and simple review.

✓  Viva questions along with explanations and answers are given for the clinical and viva voce portions of the exam.

Self-Assessment & Review Gynecology  Sakshi Arora Hans
  • The gold standard book for MBBS students.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Completely edited and updated from Novak’s Gynecology, 15th edition, and William’s Gynecology, 3rd edition.

✓  Updates are based on the most recent revisions and recommendations.

✓  Contains a clear, full-color depiction of the text.

✓  Contains over 158 coloured pictures, USG, HSG photos, equipment, and specimens.

✓  Includes annexure tables for last minute revision.

✓  Includes all most recent tumours staging and treatment (Cervix, Vulva as per FIGO guidelines).

✓  Must-read material for taking a gynaecology test, including undergraduates, international medical graduates, interns, and post-interns.

Self-Assessment & Review Obstetrics Sakshi Arora Hans
  • The latest edition of the book is extensively edited and rewritten.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Content is thoroughly revised according to Williams Obstetrics 25/e.

✓  With the most recent question trends in mind, new pattern questions have been introduced to each chapter.

✓  Additional questions with images.

✓  Added a manual for CTG.

✓  Includes annexures for last-minute changes.

✓  Includes details of significant Instruments, Dopplers, and Ultrasounds.

✓  Topic of HIV is included.

Bedside Clinics in Gynecology Arup Kumar Majhi
  • The book is intended mostly for MBBS students, but would be quite helpful for postgraduates as well.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Chapters have been updated and edited as per the CBME curriculum.

✓  Topics covered in this book include history-taking and examinations, clinical cases, instruments, operations, specimens, and images.

✓  Includes all the topics that will be covered in the oral and practical exams.

✓  Enriched with 330 graphics and over 845 unique pictures.

Ward Rounds in Obstetrics & Gynecology K Srinivas & Sunanda R Kulkarni
  • This book is quite beneficial for the UG students and residents.
  • The key features of the book:

✓  Incorporates case-based discussions and a problem-based learning strategy.

✓  Each chapter begins with the case history, examination, and investigations before addressing the topic followed by pertinent questions and pertinent responses.

✓  The book offers skill-transfer exercise in the form of in-depth case analyses, which are extremely helpful for both undergraduate and graduate students.

✓  This book’s discussion of intensive care unit (ICU) rounds, postoperative ward rounds, the examination of a victim of sexual assault, cardiac disease in pregnancy discussed by both the obstetrician and the cardiologist, some frequently encountered problems like vulval hematoma and fever in pregnancy, the use of bedside ultrasound in obstetrics, the discussion of invasive foetal procedures, etc. are some other unique aspects of the book.

Best Books of Anaesthesiology


Book Author Description
Anaesthesia Essence Pritesh Singh & Usica Chandan
  • It is a must buy book for PG entrance examinations.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  The latest edition of the book is thoroughly revised and updated including exam pattern questions, important annexures and image-based questions.

✓  The content is updated from Miller 8th/e, Morgan 5th/e, Lee 13th/e, Wiley 7th/e, Barash 7th/e, Stoelting 6th/e, Dorsch 5th/e.

✓  The book also provides the free online exam support.

Short Textbook of Anaesthesia Ajay Yadav
  • Most suited book for those pursuing undergraduate and graduate degree.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Best for last-minute revision.

✓  Concentrates on the subjects that appear most frequently in pre-PG exams.

✓  A handy reference for anaesthetists in practice.

✓  Nine parts separate the text to make reading more comfortable.

✓  Key points are highlighted in italics.

✓  Each chapter’s conclusion includes a list of key points.

✓  Tabular overview of the themes has been provided, wherever necessary.

✓  Recent advancement and innovations in medications, tools, and methods are also included in the content.

✓  The American Heart Association’s (AHA) 2015 update serves as the foundation for CPR recommendations.

Best Book for Radiology


Book Author Description
Review of Radiology Rajat Jain & Virendra Jain
  • It is the one of the bestseller books on the topic.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Based on information and ideas from the CT and MRI (Haaga), CME Series, Som and Curtin 5th/e, Dahnert 8th/e, Grainger 6th/e, Sutton, Scott, and Rumack 4th/e textbooks.

✓  Updated image-based questions.

✓  New INI-CET pattern questions are included.

✓  Contains questions from the JIPMER, WBPGMEE (2018), All India (1991–2012), AIIMS (Nov 2021–1991–2012), DNB (2012–1991–2018), and Other State Examinations (2016-1991).

✓  The content included in General Radiology, Systemic Radiology, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Scans, Few Thumb Rules in Radiology, Image-based Questions is not only intended to prepare students for exams but also for their future clinical training and day-to-day hospital employment.

Best Book for Dermatology & Venereology


Book Author Description
Review of Dermatology Saurabh Jindal
  • It is best-selling book on Dermatology for MBBS students.
  • The key features of the book are:

✓  Full-color images that are incorporated with the chapter’s content.

✓  Mnemonics, high-yield charts, and memory aids are included.

✓  Conceptual diagrams have been hand-simplified in each chapter.

✓ For last-minute revision, there is a short review section at the end of each chapter.

✓ Based on Fitzpatrick 8/e, Rook’s 9/e, Bolognia 3/e, Habif 5/e, Andrews 11/e, McKee 4/e, King Holmes 4/e, Lever 10/e, and IAL 2/e of the newest standard textbooks.

✓ 807 additional full-color images and 200 additional full-color graphics are included.

To get conceptual clarity on MBBS courses online, click here


With the time and technology, medical field has undergone major changes in terms of diagnostic measures, operative and non-operative approach leading to advanced medical techniques like precision medicine, gene editing, artificial intelligence, stem cell therapy, artificial disc replacement, robotic assisted surgery, minimally invasive spine surgery and lot more. Advancement has led to the path of much diversified and specialized medical fields.

Spine surgery is a specialised field that involves the diagnosis, treatment and surgical management of conditions that affect the spine and surrounding structures. Spine surgeons play a crucial role in providing both surgical and non-surgical treatments to help patient achieve better spine health and overall quality of life. There are various sub-specialties within the spine surgery, including Orthopaedic spine surgery, Neuro spine surgery, Pediatric spine surgery, Spinal Oncology, Spine deformity surgery, and minimally invasive spine surgery.

Spine surgery is a complex medical procedure which requires specialised knowledge and expertise. While both orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons can perform the spine surgery, there are differences in their training, experience and approach to the surgery depending on the different spine deformity or injury. The experience and expertise of the surgeon are important factors to consider while choosing a surgeon for spine surgery. Both types of surgeons have a stake in the spine since it serves as the junction between the neurological system and the musculoskeletal.

It is crucial to understand that sophisticated spine surgery is performed by both neurosurgeons and orthopaedic surgeons. These specialisations are combined in the newly developing specialty of “spinal surgery”.

Neurosurgeons for Spine Surgery:

Neuro spine surgeons are medical doctors who specialise in the diagnosis, treatment and surgical management of conditions that affect the nervous system, including the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. They are trained to diagnose and treat conditions such as brain tumors, head injuries, spinal cord compression, herniated discs spinal stenosis and traumatic spinal injuries. Neuro surgeons who specialize in the spine surgery undergo additional training and subspecialty course in the domain that focusses on the spine conditions.

The neuro spine surgeons also treat conditions like stroke, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and spinal cord injuries. During the training period, they gain expertise in the latest surgical techniques including the microsurgery and minimally invasive surgery as well as non-surgical treatments.

Neuro spine surgeons work closely with other specialists, including neurologists, pain management physicians, oncologists and physical therapists to provide the comprehensive approach to patient care.

Orthopaedic Surgeons for Spine Surgery:

Orthopaedic spine surgeon is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the spine, including vertebrae, discs, spinal cord and surrounding ligaments and muscles.

They perform variety of spine surgeries such as spinal fusion, laminectomy, and discectomy. Orthopaedic surgeons who specialise in the spine surgery focusses on the structural issues of the spine, such as alignment and stability, and may use instrumentation such as rods, screw and cages to correct the issue. They are trained in both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions such as herniated disc, degenerative disc diseases, scoliosis, spinal stenosis, spinal deformities to alleviate pain and restore function. They opt for the minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery, which lead to less pain and quicker recovery.

Orthopaedic Surgeon and Neurosurgeon for Spine Surgery

The main difference between the orthopaedic spine surgeon and neuro spine surgeon is their training and focus on the area of treatment.

Neurosurgeons who perform spine surgery opt a different approach than the orthopaedic surgeons. Neurosurgeons focus mainly on nerves and spinal cord and may use the techniques such as microdisectomy and laminotomy to decompress the nerves and treat conditions like spinal cord tumors and vascular malformations whereas orthosurgeons focus mainly on structural issues of the spine and related muscles and ligaments.

While both the orthopaedic spine surgeon and neuro spine surgeon perform the similar surgeries such as spinal fusion, laminectomy and discectomy, their training and approach may differ based on their specialty. Orthopaedic spine surgeons may approach spine surgeries from a biomechanical perspective while neuro spine surgeons may focus more on the neurological aspects of spine surgery.

It is prime responsibility of a spine surgeon to utilize the latest technologies and techniques that includes minimally invasive surgery to provide the most effective treatment options for their patients. In some cases, both the specialists work together as part of a multidisciplinary team to provide the best possible care.

How to become a Spine Surgeon in India?

After completing grade 12th with the PCB stream, becoming a spine surgeon in India typically involves the following steps:

    • Obtain a medical undergraduate degree: First, you will need to obtain a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree from a recognized medical college or university in India. This typically takes five and a half years to complete including one-year internship at a hospital or medical institution recognized by the Medical Council of India (MCI). For getting admission into medical college for MBBS degree, you will be mandatorily required to clear the NEET-UG entrance exam with the required cut off score and rank.
      Click here to read complete information regarding NEET-UG entrance examination.


    • Obtain a master’s degree: To become a spine surgeon, you have options to choose your PG specialty. You will need to clear the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test-postgraduate (NEET-PG) or INI-CET entrance examination for admission to a MD/MS program in India. You can pursue a 3-year Master of Surgery (MS) degree in Orthopaedics or General Surgery.
      Click here to enroll in the MBBS courses online for NEET-PG preparation.
      You also have an option to pursue DNB course in Neurosurgery/Orthopaedics. For admission to DNB courses, you must clear the DNB-PDCET entrance examination with the required cut off and score.


    • Complete a Residency: After completing your master’s programme, you will need to complete a residency program in area of your PG expertise. This will provide you with the necessary clinical experience and training in the surgery specialty.


    • Obtain a super specialisation degree: After completing MS/DNB degree, you may need to further pursue the super specialisation in Neurosurgery (M.Ch) for pursuing a career as a spine surgeon. You have to successfully clear the NEET-SS entrance examination for admission to M.Ch courses.


    • Fellowship in Spine Surgery: After completing the residency of your respective medical course, you need to pursue a fellowship program in spine surgery to specialize in this field. Students who have earned a DNB, MD, MS, M.Ch, or DM in the relevant speciality are eligible for entry to the NBEMS fellowship programme. Anyone with a medical degree in DNB/MS Orthopaedics or DNB/M.Ch Neurosurgery who have passed the FET (Fellowship Entrance Exam) and meets the requirements for admission to fellowship programmes at the various NBE-accredited medical colleges, institutions, and hospitals in India is eligible to participate in the centralised counselling for the allocation of FNB Spine Surgery seats solely on the basis of merit and preference. There are many institutes in India which offer fellowship program in spine surgery.
      Click here to learn latest surgical techniques with the case-based spine surgery videos by the eminent surgeons.


    • Obtain your fellowship and License: Student who pass the Fellowship Exit Examination are recognised as Fellow of the National Board (FNB) or Fellow of the National Board – Post Doctoral (FNB-PD) at the NBEMS annual convocation.

Once you have received your certification and completed your education and training, you will need to obtain a license to practice as a spine surgeon in India. You will need to register with the Medical Council of India (MCI) or the respective state medical council in order to practice medicine in India.

As a spine surgeon, it is important to keep your knowledge and skills up to date by regularly attending conferences, seminars, and workshops on spine surgery. This will help you stay updated with the latest techniques and advancements in the field and latest surgical and non-surgical approaches.

It is highly important for the medical students to carefully choose their medical specialty and subspecialty. Medical professional pursuing the course or fellowship in neurosurgery or orthopaedics and is interested in the spine surgery specialty can enroll in online spine surgery courses 2023. These courses provide detailed real life case demonstrations of spine surgery.

Orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons may learn about the most recent methods and techniques in the field of spine surgery from the Ganga Videos on Spine Surgery course, a collection of 50 spine surgery videos. It includes minimally invasive and neurosurgical techniques, as well as treatments for spinal deformities, all carried out by renowned and skilled surgeons. The key feature of the course includes 10 hours of video lectures31 lecture notesover 60 benchmark trials, and 150 self-assessment questions.

This spine surgery online courses include video lectures that demonstrate operations together with the clinical information about the patient, pertinent images, a brief explanation of the process, the actual surgical procedure, potential problems, post-operative treatment, and follow-up.

Brief summaries of the important topics are discussed in the lectures to help the candidates. Multiple-choice questions that are given at the conclusion of each lecture allow applicants to gauge their level of comprehension of the subject. To improve students’ understanding, video lectures and study guides are supplemented with clinical research investigations and benchmark trials.

Overall, becoming a spine surgeon in India requires a significant amount of education and training and lot of hard work and patience, but it can be a rewarding career for those who are dedicated to help patients with spine-related conditions.

The second year of MBBS is quite important as it includes all the foundational subjects. Microbiology, Pharmacology, and Pathology subjects are included in the second year of the MBBS curriculum. They serve as a strong foundation in the MBBS journey and hence, conceptual clarity over these subjects is a must for every medical student. Apart from the three subjects, the second-year curriculum includes AETCOM (Attitude, Ethics, Communication Module), Sports and extracurricular activities, postings, and a pandemic module. All the students must refer to the latest edition of the books during the study so that they remain updated with the latest advancements in the subject and newly added chapters and modules according to the new CBME pattern.

There are a variety of books available in the market but choosing the right one is crucial. One must choose a standard book that is in lucid manner and includes highly illustrative images, flowcharts, tables, must-know topics, questions with explanations, and most of all, it must be according to the new CBME pattern.

Here’s a list of recommended books for MBBS 2nd year students:

Best Books on Microbiology for MBBS Students:

Subject: Microbiology Authors Description
Essentials of Medical Microbiology Apurba Sastry & Sandhya Bhat
  • Apurba Sastry’s Essentials of Medical Microbiology book is highly recommended to MBBS students for conceptual clarity and to score high in MBBS prof exams as well as competitive examinations.
  • The book has two parts: Part A includes General Microbiology, Immunology, and Hospital Infection Control (Infectious Diseases), and Part B includes Systemic Microbiology.
  • The key features of the book are:

✔ This is the only textbook in “Clinical Microbiology” that is centered on infectious syndromes, updated according to the CBME curriculum.

✔ It has simple language and bulleted writing that is easy to read.

✔ Summary boxes for laboratory diagnosis and therapy are provided separately for easy viewing.

✔ After each chapter, there are essay questions with clinical case studies and MCQs.

✔ The book additionally has a Covid-19 chapter and the AETCOM module.

✔ References are taken from the CDC and WHO websites, the Harrison 20th edition, the Mandell 9th edition, the Bailey & Scott’s 14th edition, as well as many health care programmes and recommendations including the ICMR, NCDC, RNTCP, NACO, NVBDCP, IAP Immunization, and GPEI.

✔ Only textbook in microbiology that is designed according to the PG entrance exams.

Review of Microbiology and Immunology Apurba Sastry & Sandhya Bhat
  • The Key features of the book are:

✔ The latest edition of the book includes the most recent laboratory diagnosis, therapy, and epidemiology in every chapter.

✔ The book includes updates on bacterial medication resistance and information on the Zika virus, Ebola virus, polio eradication, Dengue vaccine, vaccine-derived polio viruses (vdpvs), and MERS-CoV.

✔ Newer molecular techniques (lamp, real-time PCR, biofire film array, etc.) as well as CSSD, Malditof, Vitek, and Bact/Alert Virtuo are featured.

✔ The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis, pneumococcal vaccinations, DPT vaccine, TB (genexpert, mgit, truenat, drug susceptibility testing methodologies, most recent RNTCP recommendations), melioidosis, scrub typhus, and the yaws eradication campaign have all undergone significant updates.

✔ Updated laboratory findings for hbv and HCF diagnosis, therapy, and PEP.

✔ Updates on the poliomyelitis vaccine schedule, epidemiology, and end game strategy are also covered.

✔ Completely updated with the most recent references from Harrison (19th and 20th editions), Park (24th edition), Jawetz (27th edition), Apurba Sastry’s Essentials of Medical Microbiology (2nd edition), and Ananthanarayan (10th edition).

✔ Separate annexures section with pertinent, quick-fire subjects for exams are provided.

✔ Sections including immunology, parasitology, and mycology are given more attention.

✔ Contains several tables, flowcharts, and mnemonics that aid students in understanding.

Self-Assessment & Review Microbiology & Immunology Rachna Chaurasia & Anshul Jain
  • The key features of the book are:

✔ “Revision at a Glance,” a single unit that highlights the most crucial aspects.

✔ Mnemonics and simple text to make learning easier.

✔ Offers a comprehensive treatment of parasitology and immunology.

✔ Citations from more recent printings of classic works, such as Harrison 20/e, Ananthanarayan 10/e, Jawetz 27/e, etc.

✔ Presents the most crucial information in a style that is simple to recall, including flow diagrams and tabulation.

✔ Detailed explanations of the most recent NEET question types.

Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology R Ananthanarayan and CK Jayaram Paniker

Editor: Reba Kanungo

  • The latest edition of the book is aimed at integrating microbiology in a system-based approach to human disease.
  • The book includes sections on General Microbiology, Immunology, and Microbiology as Applied to Infectious Diseases.
  • The key features of the book include:

✔ Recent developments in disease detection, molecular diagnostics, quality assurance, infection prevention and control, public health and epidemiology, and preventative techniques, including national programs, have been covered in up-to-date information.

✔ The format of the discussion is the same for all syndromes, and it includes information on the important etiological agents of each system, their disease spectra, pathogenesis, clinical features, epidemiology, and the strategy for laboratory diagnosis and treatment of each of the clinical entities described.

✔ For quick reference and memory, each chapter in this part includes one or more tabular columns summarising the causes of the numerous syndromes associated with each organ system.

✔ The organisms included in these tables are color-coded according to their respective organ system etiological relevance.


Best Books of Pathology for MBBS Students:

Subject: Pathology Authors Description
Textbook of Pathology Harsh Mohan
  • Harsh Mohan’s Textbook of Pathology is one of the bestselling books on Pathology for MBBS students.
  • The key features of the book are:

✔ There are 30 chapters in total in the updated version, divided into three sections: Systemic Pathology (Ch. 15–30), Haematopoietic and Lymphoreticular System (Ch. 11–14), and General Pathology (Ch. 1–10). There are also three appendices.

✔ “Must-know” boxes after each topic summarising essential elements for a quick review of the material in a very short amount of time.

✔ After most chapters, one or more clinical cases based on a prevalent or significant disease relevant to that chapter are provided, together with a brief history, examination results, and any subsequent research discoveries.

✔ The addition of significant review questions (both long-answer type and short notes on subjects) at the end of each chapter, to help the student prepare and visualize what to write in the test, is another new feature of the redesigned version.

✔ The updated baby book includes short-answer questions that are frequently asked during viva-voce examinations as well as newer MCQs that now include explanations.

✔ Newer and Modified Images: Prof. Ivan Damjanov graciously provided schematic, gross images, and photomicrographs for the better understanding of the students.

Essentials in Hematology and Clinical Pathology Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai
  • The Key features of the book are:

✔ Over 135 drawings, 27 photomicrographs, 18 pictures, and 146 tables have been provided to make learning simple and quick.

✔ Essay questions, quick-answer questions, and more than 300 multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are included to help students to assess their understanding of the key ideas.

✔ Appendices 1 and 2 include Reference Values of Frequently Performed Important Laboratory Tests and Recent WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, respectively.

✔ Disorders of Red Cells, Disorders of White Cells, Disorders of Hemostasis, and Clinical Pathology make up the book’s four parts.

✔ Tables, diagrams, flowcharts, and key boxes for memorizing easily.

Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology Ramadas Nayak
  • The primary goal of the “Ramadas Nayak’s Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates—Pathology” is to provide students with a solid understanding of pathology and, as a result, insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, and disease course.
  • The key features of the book are:

✔ This version is a comprehensive guide for passing all pathology exams.

✔ Better quality photomicrographs or illustrations have been used in place of figures and illustrations in a few chapters.

✔ The book is divided into three sections: general pathology, hematological and clinical pathology, and systemic pathology. This book has 28 chapters.

✔ This book fills a void by offering fundamental knowledge to a student in a nutshell.

Rapid Review of Hematology Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai
  • This hematology book, provides an undergraduate with the fundamental knowledge of the subject in a nutshell.
  • Rapid Review of Hematology is designed for undergraduates in medical, dental, and paramedical science.
  •  The key features of the book include:

✔ Illustrations in various colors (e.g., for etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, complications, peripheral blood smear, and other relevant laboratory tests).

✔ Bullet-pointed text for concise reading.

✔ Text reinforced with 59 flow charts and tables, 25 photomicrographs (including X-rays and clinical photos), and 64 drawings.

✔ Text boxes to emphasize important points.

✔ Clinical scenario interpretation.

Review of Pathology and Genetics Sparsh Gupta & Gobind Rai Garg
  • The latest edition of the book is based on the NBE pattern.
  • The key features of the book include:

✔ Special points like “NEET busters” have been added for last-minute review.

✔ IBQs with Solutions

✔ Golden points are provided at the start of each chapter.

✔ Most authenticated question banks.

✔ PGMEEs 2021-1985 Solved MCQs with all current questions for 2022.

✔ A new format that is organized chapter-by-chapter to make it easier for the students to learn antegrade.

✔ In the text, new conceptual and clinically significant material has been emphasized.

✔ Many flowcharts and diagrams are used to swiftly review the concepts.

✔ References are taken from the Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 10th edition.

✔ Golden nuggets and other details from the 10th edition of Robbins are provided separately.

✔ Questions from previous year exams are underlined in the text.

✔ Simple-to-understand Mnemonics.

✔ Chapter on significant stains and bodies is included.

Comprehensive Image-Based Review of Pathology Sushant Soni
  • It is the only image-based book with more than 650 images with their explanation.
  • The book covers questions based on the NEET PG exam pattern.
  • The book has highly Illustrative images and is easy to comprehend.


Best Books of Pharmacology for MBBS Students:

Subject: Pharmacology Authors


Essentials of Medical Pharmacology K.D. Tripathi
  • Undoubtedly, K.D. Tripathi’s Essentials of Medical Pharmacology is one of the best pharmacology books for medical students.
  • The key features of the book are:

✔ Chapters that have been revised and updated to reflect new medications and treatment recommendations.

✔ The book contains a wide range of subjects, from fundamental pharmacological ideas to real-world therapies and the advancement in medication and treatment.

✔ Novel medications that work by altering the function or turnover of these molecules have been included in a new chapter on “Nitric Oxide and Vasoactive Peptide Signal Molecules.”

✔ Drugs that are marked in India have been given priority, and their top brand names and dosage forms are included.

✔ A list of acronyms is supplied at the book’s opening.

✔ All newly marketed medications are mentioned.

✔ Charts that categorize drugs visually, aiding in the development of pictorial memory.

✔ There have been several new figures, charts, tables, and highlight boxes added.

✔ Place a strong emphasis on “evidence-based medicine” by often citing reliable research and endpoint trials.

✔ The “Problem Directed Study” at the end of the majority of chapters offers a therapeutic decision-making activity.

✔ Contains appendices on Solutions to Problem Directed Study, Prescription in Pregnancy, Drugs in Breastfeeding, and Drugs and Fixed Dose Combinations Prohibited in India.

✔ The book concludes with a brief list of pertinent resources for additional study.

Review of Pharmacology Govind Rai Garg & Sparsh Gupta
  • It is one of the best-selling books on the subject.
  • A must-buy book for the NEET PG, INI-CET, and other competitive examinations.
  • The book has a question bank in every chapter including MCQs and IBQs.
  • The key features of the book include:

✔ Facts and ideas based on KDT 8th, Katzung 13th, Goodman Gilman 13th, Harrison 20th, and CMDT 2022 newest versions.

✔ A distinct chapter with explanations of mathematical issues.

✔ Includes IBQs and MCQs with explanations.

✔ In each chapter, recent advancements are mentioned.

✔ “New FDA-approved Drugs” annexures are separate documents.

✔ Mnemonics can help you recall important information about novel medications.

✔ Annexures of the “Drug of Choice” for various ailments.

✔ The benefits of both antegrade and retrograde study.

✔ Simple to-remember mnemonics.

Pharmacology for Medical Graduates Tara V Shanbhag, Smita Shenoy
  • The key features of the book are:

✔ Questions based on the format used by examiners for both theoretical and practical sections.

✔ Language is simple to grasp because of the concise headers and specific pharmacological descriptions.

✔ Information is presented clearly and point-by-point, which is helpful for UG students preparing for exams.

✔ Adding basic illustrations, self-explanatory flowcharts, tables, and student-friendly mnemonics to the text.

✔ New subjects have been presented, such as CNS stimulants, drugs for the treatment of psoriasis, and medications for acne vulgaris.

✔ We acknowledge the inclusion of definitions, and treatment plans by WHO standards (for TB, leprosy, malaria, and HIV), RNTCP guidelines (for TB), and JNC guidelines (from 2003) for the categorization of blood pressure.

✔ The Tara Shanbhag’s Pharmacology for Medical Graduates fully revised edition will be helpful for both working physicians and medical students.

To get conceptual clarity on MBBS courses online, click here.

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) is an undergraduate degree in medicine. The course is of four and a half years, followed by one year of compulsory rotational internship. There are a total of 19 subjects in the MBBS curriculum.

There are three subjects in the first year of the MBBS, Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Physiology. There are numerous books available for the MBBS subjects but choosing the right set of books is highly important.

Here’s a list of recommended books for MBBS 1st year students:

Best Books of Anatomy for MBBS Students:

Subject: Anatomy Author Description
Self-Assessment and Review of Anatomy Rajesh K Kaushal
  • The book is written in simple language with labelled diagrams, tables, and flowcharts making it easier for students to read and learn.
  • The book has 11 chapters, including general anatomy, embryology, histology, neuroanatomy, head and neck, back, thorax, upper limb, abdomen, pelvis, and lower limb.
  • It provides conceptual clarity over all the topics including the clinical applications.
  • Every chapter includes questions along with a detailed explanation.
New Across: A Complete Review of Short Subjects Saumya Shukla, Siddharth Dixit, Anurag Shukla & Khushi Shukla
  • It is one of the best-selling MCQ books on short subjects.
  • To make the students learn easily, the subjects are divided into theory and MCQs along with concise notes for each chapter.
  • The book contains tables, figures, flowcharts, and mnemonics to help students prepare and memorize well.
  • It is even recommended as one of the best books for NEET-PG preparation.
Human Anatomy BD Chaurasia, Krishna Garg
  • The book follows the CBME pattern along with the latest updates and advancements.
  • The chief feature of the book includes the hand-drawn line diagrams by Dr. BD Chaurasia and color codes in the drawings.
  • FAQs and MCQs are structured in the ‘clinical mode’.
  • Early Clinical Exposure (ECE) has been offered in the form of a specific case’s signs, symptoms, investigations, and treatment.
  • Viva voce questions, molecular regulation, clinic-anatomical problems, ossification, and dissection (steps) are all included in the book.
Gray’s Anatomy for Students Raveendranath Veeramani, Sunil Jonathan Holla, Parkash Chand & Sunil Chumber
  • It is the gold standard book for anatomy.
  • The updated edition incorporates ground-breaking elements like set introductions, chapter summaries, and flowcharts to aid learning.
  • Levels I, II, and III are listed as the “structures to be identified in a dissection,” which correspond to the content that is “must know,” “desirable to know,” and “good to know,” respectively.
  • Updates on imaging methods have been made, and dissection has received the appropriate amount of emphasis to help students understand the value of having a solid understanding of the relevant anatomy.
  • To encourage readers to refer to the visuals while learning, more figure numbers are mentioned in the text. The beginning of each chapter includes helpful review aids.
  • The cranial nerves have received more attention by having their pertinent details described with numerous extra examples and flowcharts.
Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy Rachel Koshi
  • This textbook is the perfect practical anatomy book for undergraduate students because it features clear language that is easy to read.
  • Each dissection starts with learning objectives, and the dissection lab makes it simple to follow with detailed step-by-step instructions.
  • Full colour, completely revised artwork brings the amiable explanations to life.
  • Anatomy’s relationship to clinical medical practice is explained in new clinical application boxes and radiological images throughout the book.
  • Multiple-choice questions at each section’s conclusion allow students to rapidly review their understanding before looking up the solutions in the appendix.


Best Books of Biochemistry for MBBS Students:

Subject: Biochemistry Author Description
Self-Assessment and Review of Biochemistry Rebecca James Perumcheril
  • The book is a complete concept-based study with the latest references and includes image-based information, high-yield topics, mnemonics, and tables.
  • It is highly recommended for the competitive entrance examinations as it comprises the previous year’s questions.
  • The book contains the chapter reviews based on Harper’s 31st ed, Lehninger’s 7th ed, and Robbin’s 9th ed and clinically correlated with facts from Harrison’s 20th ed, Nelson’s 20th ed, and CMDT 2019.
Textbook Of Biochemistry for Medical Students DM Vasudevan, Sreekumari S & Kannan Vaidyanathan
  • The book is accepted as one of the textbooks of Biochemistry by MCI.
  • This edition’s inclusion of clinical case studies in nearly every chapter is one of its main draws. The students will be assisted in determining the clinical applicability of biochemistry through this feature.
  • In most of the chapters, additional points that are clinically pertinent are added.
  • The latest advancements in molecular biology have been included.
  • There are 50 chapters in all and 6 parts in this textbook. Nearly every chapter concludes with essay questions, quick notes, multiple choice questions, and viva-voce style questions.
  • This textbook includes roughly 1,000 figures, 200 tables, and 200 boxes, all of which make the book more user-friendly for students.
Biochemistry U. Satyanarayana & U. Chakrapani
  • The key features of the book include Self-assessment exercises, Origins of Important Biochemical Words, Common Confusables in Biochemistry, Practical Biochemistry Principles, Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Case Studies with Biochemical Correlations, and Reference Biochemical Values.
  • The book features a four-line verse at the start of each chapter, then the text with clinical correlations, a summary, and self-evaluation exercises. The content and graphics are engaging, and the proper headings and subheadings are in bold to make it easier to read and remember.
  • It includes the fundamentals (Bioorganic and Biophysical Chemistry, Tools of Biochemistry, Immunology, and Genetics), Confusables in Biochemistry, Origins of Biochemical Words, Principles of Practical Biochemistry, and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory for novices to study Biochemistry simply.
  • The book contains highly illustrative colorful images which help the students memorize easily.
Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry (South Asian Edition) Denise R. Ferrier
SAE Editors: Ritu Singh, Rajeev Goyal
  • The book explains how biochemistry relates to routine medical care through interdisciplinary, chapter-based cases and “Clinical” boxes scattered throughout.
  • With a clear outline format, a tonne of full-color illustrations, and chapter summaries, learning and studying are made simple.
  • It includes an expanded chapter on macronutrients and micronutrients and much more.
  • The chapter on blood clotting is a bonus point of the book.
Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry Kathleen Botham, Peter J. Kennelly, Owen McGuinness, P. Anthony Weil, Peter Kennelly, Victor Rodwell The book includes the following important topics:

  • Toxic naturally occurring amino acids, extraterrestrial biomolecules, computer-aided drug design cells, basophils, and eosinophils, the role of the complement cascade in bacterial and viral infection, secreted mediators of cell-cell signalling between leukocytes, the hazard of antioxidants that down-regulate radical signalling for apoptosis and increase risk of cancer and much more.
  • With case studies emphasizing the clinical relevance of biochemistry, review questions following each of the eleven sections, “Objectives” boxes defining the goals of each chapter, and tables encapsulating crucial information, this authoritative guide presents information in a way that helps you retain everything you read.
  • More than 600 pictures are included in this book, which also contains a section on the topic’s biomedical value in each chapter.

Best Books of Physiology for MBBS Students:

Subject: Physiology Author Description
Principles of Physiology Debasis Pramanik
  • The use of coloured boxes to highlight complex physiology themes in the text is one of the book’s most appealing elements.
  • The themes are broken down into twelve sections, with the first section providing a thorough explanation of general physiology. The second section discusses the physiology of nerve and muscle.
  • All of the pertinent hematology-related subjects are outlined in the third section. The circulatory system, the digestive system, and the excretory system are all covered in detail in the fifth, sixth, and seventh sections, respectively.
  • The respiratory system is covered in detail in the fourth section.
  • The ninth section goes into detail about metabolism.
  • The neurological system, endocrine system, and reproductive system are all carefully described in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh sections, respectively.
Review of Physiology Soumen Manna
  • This book’s content is arranged into eight divisions, each of which contains nineteen chapters, according to the various organ systems.
  • General physiology, nerve-muscle physiology, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the central nervous system, the renal and gastrointestinal systems, and the endocrine and reproductive systems are among these sections.
  • Each chapter begins with a brief introduction to the topic before moving on to multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and their clear, short, and accurate explanations, which are supported by citations to relevant research papers and/or standard textbooks.
  • Important details have been retained in the “side boxes” so that students can quickly and easily review the text.
  • This edition also includes a brand-new chapter called “Male and Female Reproductive Physiology”.
Crisp Complete Review of Integrated Systems Physiology S Krishna Kumar
  • This book provides straightforward explanations of physiological fundamentals.
  • It includes information from pharmacology and pathophysiology integrated at the conclusion of each topic.
  • It includes an analysis of ECG questions, an analysis of questions pertaining to acid-base disorders, an analysis of calculations pertaining to respiratory physiology, image-based questions at the conclusion of each chapter, and significant one-liner IOLs.
Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology (South East Edition) John E. Hall, Michael E. Hall

Adaption Editors: Mario Vaz, Anura Kurpad, Tony Raj


  • It includes broader clinical coverage of degenerative diseases like obesity, metabolic and cardiovascular issues, and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Flowcharts and flow diagrams are used to simplify complex concepts and processes for easier comprehension.
  • Better knowledge of Physiology by the more than 1000 expertly made illustrations and sketches that are included.
  • It provides a clinically oriented viewpoint, connecting fundamental physiology and pathology, and highlighting key cellular and molecular mechanisms in clinical medicine.
  • Based on the most recent research in the field and updated throughout using the Guyton and Hall Textbook of Physiology, 14th edition.
  • The book’s information has been revised to reflect all topics covered under the new MCI curriculum.
Textbook of Physiology A.K. Jain
  • The book has two volumes.
  • Over 700 figures, 2000 multiple-choice questions, and more than 1000 study questions are included.
  • For a better understanding of clinical topics, numerous clinical images have been included.
  • Each chapter’s study questions have been changed in accordance with standards provided by the Medical Council of India (MCI).
  • General Physiology, Blood, Nerve, and Muscle Physiology, Digestive, Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems are all included in Volume I.
  • The organ systems covered in Volume II are the nervous system, the reproductive system, the endocrine system, metabolism and nutrition, and the special senses.
  • The South Asian Edition’s main characteristics are extensive material revisions and updates, a lengthy section on micronutrients, and blood coagulation.


To get conceptual clarity on MBBS courses online, click here.

Can you crack NEET PG in 2 months? The answer is yes! However, cracking NEET PG in 2 months is no easy feat and requires serious dedication, diligence, and hard work. Cracking NEET-PG in 2 months is possible with frequent revision of all the concepts an aspirant has learned in his/her MBBS years. There is no doubt that NEET PG is one of the toughest exams in India but learning how to crack NEET PG in first attempt is even harder. Given the vastness of the syllabus, the fierce competition, and the limited time frame, let’s figure out exactly how you can channel all your motivation towards learning how to prepare for NEET PG 2023 in 2 months.

  1. Create A Dedicated Study Schedule – Forming a study schedule that details exactly what topics you need to study and when to study is essential in the path to cracking NEET PG in 2 months. By analysing the syllabus and assessing your weak points, you can create a highly effective and productive timetable for NEET PG 2023 preparation in 2 months. By creating a personalised and productive timetable for NEET PG preparation in 2 months, you can get started each day without having to waste time deciding what you need to study as it will all be planned out for you to simply follow.

Here’s a 2 Months subject-wise revision plan for NEET-PG 2023:

Part Number of days to complete each subject Total number of days
Anatomy 3 days  9 days
Physiology 2 days
Biochemistry 2 days
Solve NEET PG practice questions and previous year’s question papers 2 days
Microbiology 2 days  12 days
Pathology 3 days
Pharmacology 3 days
Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 1 day
Solve NEET PG practice questions and previous year’s question papers 3 days
Community Medicine & PSM 3 days 10 days
ENT 2 days
Ophthalmology 2 days
Solve NEET PG practice questions and previous year’s question papers 3 days
Dermatology 1 day 13 days
Medicine 5 days
Psychiatry 1 day
Pediatrics 1 day
Solve NEET PG practice questions and previous year’s question papers 5 days
Surgery 5 days 16 days
Anaesthesia 1 day
Orthopaedics 1 day
Radiology 1 day
Obstetrics & Gynecology 3 days
Solve NEET PG practice questions and previous year’s question papers 5 days
Solve one NEET-PG mock exam every two weeks to boost your preparation and manage time

Every aspirant has their own competencies so you can personalize the above shared plan according to your difficulty level of any subject.

2. Practice Previous-Year Papers – Studying past years’ papers can help you adjust to the method of questioning while also providing good practice. Your 2-month study plan for NEET PG 2023 should be loaded with as many relevant past papers and sample papers as possible. By slotting breaks to only attempt these papers after several rounds of revision, you can make the most out of your 2 month study plan for NEET PG 2023.

Click here to know the important topics of Pharmacology for NEET-PG.

3. Revise Thoroughly – Memorising and understanding such a large syllabus is not an easy task, especially when your plan rests on how to prepare for NEET PG 2023 in 2 months. Thus, the answer for cracking NEET PG in 2 months comes through the form of repeated bouts of revision. Make sure you periodically revise topics you’ve already studied, either through mock tests, other self-assessment, or even repeatedly reading your notes. Try flowcharts, mnemonics, flashcards to memorize well.

Click here to know the important topics of Community Medicine for NEET-PG.

4. Learn To Sacrifice – If you want to know how to prepare for NEET PG 2023 in 2 months, the simple solution is learning to prioritise and sacrifice certain things. During your 2 month study plan for NEET PG 2023, you will come across some topics that are personally too difficult or time-consuming, so plan to clear your concepts of these topics first. For this, you can resort to online platforms like DigiNerve which provides best content by India’s top faculty.

Click here to know the important topics of Microbiology for NEET-PG.

Now that the question of ‘Can you crack NEET PG in 2 months’ has been answered, and guidelines for an effective timetable for NEET PG preparation in 2 months have been given to you, get started! For more tips on how to crack NEET PG 2023 in first attempt, click here and clear your concepts with DigiNerve.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

Q1. When will be NEET PG 2023 exam conducted?

Ans. NEET-PG 2023 exam will be conducted in the month of March.

Q2. Will NEET-PG 2023 be held?

Ans. Yes, NEET-PG will be held in 2023 as per the notifications till now. The NExT exam is likely to be held from year 2024.

Q3. How many times a year is NEET PG held?

Ans. The NEET-PG exam is held once in a year.



The National Eligibility Cum Entrance Examination-Post Graduate (NEET PG) is a medical entrance exam that goes around in the minds of MBBS students all the time, and getting a good rank to secure an MD/MS seat is a dream for all MBBS graduates.


Perseverance makes all the difference.

Getting a high rank in the exam is a tough task, but not impossible. To score 600+ marks in NEET PG 2024, you must plan an effective preparation strategy, keeping in mind subject weightage, the pattern of the exam, high-yielding topics, and the best preparation books. Considering the vast syllabus and the competition, an aspirant should start the preparation in the early phase itself.

Here are some reliable preparation tips to secure a good rank in the NEET PG 2024 entrance examination.

Preparation Tips for NEET PG 2024

1. Make an effective preparation strategy

Keeping in mind the time left for the exam, prioritize your schedule. Make a realistic plan you can stick to and devote your time according to the topics, including those that you haven’t started, those that are unclear, and those that you only need to revise once. Time management and work-life balance are the two factors that should be kept in mind for an effective plan, especially during postings. Knowing the exam pattern and subject weightage would also help you prepare a better preparation strategy.

Below is a 3-month effective preparation strategy to crack NEET PG 2024.

Subject-wise time division:

Part Number of days to complete Total days
Anatomy 5 days 13 days
Physiology 3 days
Biochemistry 3 days
Revision 2 days
Microbiology 5 days 19 days
Pathology 5 days
Pharmacology 4 days
Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2 days
Revision 3 days
Community Medicine & PSM 7 days 15 days
ENT 2 days
Ophthalmology 3 days
Revision 3 days
Dermatology 3 days 17 days
Medicine 5 days
Psychiatry 3 days
Pediatrics 3 days
Revision 3 days
Surgery 7 days 26 days
Anaesthesia 3 days
Orthopaedics 3 days
Radiology 3 days
Obstetrics & Gynecology 6 days
Revision 4 days

Keep the rest of the time for quick revision and practicing previous year’s NEET PG practice questions.

2. Analyze your level of understanding

Analyze your level of understanding of the syllabus and subjects for the NEET PG exam. Divide your time and make your study plan as per your level of understanding in the subject and module. Don’t ignore the subjects which seem boring to you as doing so can prove to be the wrong decision ever. It is hence advised to make short notes and flashcards of the important dates, events, and information for quick revision, especially in scoring subjects such as PSM.

3. Set your target

As per your preparation strategy, set your daily, weekly, or monthly targets and keep up your pace. Completion of the tasks will boost your confidence every time. For instance, you can set your target as completing at least two previous year’s papers in a week depending upon your schedule. It is advised that while solving the question papers, make sure you read about the incorrect options along with the correct answer to upskill your preparation. Always read the question and options carefully. Don’t jump to the conclusion and try to rule out the incorrect options while practicing and reading about them.

Don’t get overburdened with tasks. Take breaks.

4. Revision

Don’t just read topics; get your concepts cleared to improve retention. Learning and revising should go together. If you have read any topic today, then revise it within 5–10 days and don’t leave it for later, as you’ll be loaded with more topics by then. So, regular revision is a must to brush up on your concepts. This technique of balancing learning and revising helps in memorizing well and reduces last-minute pressure.

Always prefer to study from your notes, including flowcharts, tables, and mnemonics for the NEET PG exam.

For instance,

A. The mnemonic ‘SAMPLE history’ is to remember all the events for the diagnosis.

Signs and symptoms



Past medical history

Last meal


B. Another mnemonic to remember for pain is SOCRATES.





Associated symptoms


Exacerbating or relieving factors

Severity (/10)


5. Practice MCQs

Solving MCQs gives you exposure to the NEET-PG 2024 exam pattern. After completing each topic, go through its self-assessment questions, which benefit your learning in two ways: first, you’ll be able to assess your level of understanding of the topic, and second, you’ll know the types of MCQs that can be framed from the topic in the exam.

This practice also helps you analyse the topics, which in general have more direct questions, or IBQs, clinical case-based questions, and more. This helps you enhance your problem-solving skills.

6. Solve Previous year’s questions

Solving PYQs is a must. This makes you familiar with the exam pattern and monitors your progress. It is advisable to practice PYQs with your timer on. Time management plays a vital role in the examination. PYQs for the NEET-PG exam will help you get familiarized with the NEET-PG 2024 exam paper pattern along with the types of questions asked. This practice also instills confidence in you.

7. Focus on high-yielding topics

Make a proper list of subjects with their high-yielding topics, and make sure you don’t miss any for the exam. Make proper notes on these topics and revise them properly while solving MCQs and PYQs.

Click here to know the important topics of Microbiology for NEET-PG.

Click here to know the important topics of Community Medicine for NEET-PG.

Click here to know the important topics of Pharmacology for NEET-PG.

Click here to know the important topics of Pathology for NEET PG.

8. Prioritize your health

While keeping up your pace for NEET PG 2024, don’t exhaust your body and mind. Keep yourself healthy to study effectively. It can be easy to develop harmful habits like bingeing on junk food, skipping workouts, isolating oneself excessively, or even sinking into a depressed state of mind while preparing for NEET PG.

However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, eating wholesome foods, engaging in brief bursts of much-needed socialization, and regularly monitoring your mental health are of the utmost importance, particularly if you want to score 600+ in the NEET PG 2024. Make sure you get proper sleep, minimize your level of stress, and meditate. It is important to stay focused and have a positive mindset. Have faith in yourself. Keep yourself hydrated and stay away from distractions.

To get conceptual clarity on MBBS courses online, click here.


Ever since medicine has been in existence, so has pathology. Knowledge of pathology is essential to understand the illness, from the cause and investigation of the disease to diagnosis and treatment. Learning all the terminologies used in pathology lab reports is also important. It will be very difficult to treat patients and prevent disease progression without a complete understanding of the subject.

The whole subject, as far as an undergraduate student is concerned, deals with

  1. Etiology: The cause of the disease
  2. Pathogenesis: Steps in which certain events occurred that finally led to the disease
  3. Histopathological examination, of any disease: Involves dealing with gross appearance and microscopic examination.

Branches of Pathology

Pathology subject has two types of branches:

  1. Morphological Branches include:
  • Histopathology
    • Surgical pathology
    • Experimental pathology
    • Forensic pathology and autopsy work
  • Cytopathology
    • Exfoliating cytology
    • Interventional cytology
    • Hematology
  1. Non-morphological Branches include:
    • Clinical pathology
    • Clinical biochemistry
    • Microbiology
    • Immunology
    • Medical genetics
    • Molecular pathology
    • Molecular cytogenetics

Important topics of Pathology for MBBS students

General pathology forms the base for the units that lie ahead.

General pathology will introduce you to terms that will be used time and again, so if you do not understand those terminologies, you will never be able to comprehend systemic pathology. For example, terms like hyperplasia, metaplasia, etc. will be used very commonly, and if you are not aware of what they mean, then it will be very hard to understand diseases.

Hematology is another part of Pathology. You must do your best while studying this unit, because all your basic knowledge about examining the blood test reports, and your skills in investigating a patient of anemia, will come from here.

Other high-yielding pathology topics for NEET PG 2023 include Inflammation, Anemia, Macrocytic Anemia, Acute Leukemias, Chronic Leukemias, Thalassemia, Lymphadenopathy, etc.

From the systemic pathology, units like the Kidney, GIT, Lungs, and Hepatobiliary system are highly important  for NEET PG aspirant. Not just this, Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus are two diseases you cannot skip, because of their increasing prevalence in India.

Watch below video lectures on high-yielding Pathology topics by top Pathology faculty.

Recommended books for Pathology

One of the favorites among students and the highly recommended book is Jaypee publishers’ “Textbook of Pathology” by Prof. Harsh Mohan. The book has a single volume and the language and content are easier to understand. The histopathology diagrams include both microscopic pictures and hand-drawn images, which makes it easier for students to memorize and reproduce those images in the exams. There are appropriate flowcharts and a lot of tables, which take lesser time to read and learn.

Another recommended book for Prof exam preparation is Prof. Ramadas Nayak’s “Pathology Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates”. The book has covered all the topics lucidly with illustrations, tables, flowcharts, etc. The book is highly recommended for notes and revision.

For the practical part of pathology, there is another book by the author, Prof. Harsh Mohan, titled, ‘Practical Pathology’. This book will be very helpful for lab sessions and practical examinations. It has histopathology of most of the slides and specimens that form a part of your practical viva.

Paper Pattern of Prof Exams

After the advent of Competency-Based Medical Education in 2019, the pattern of examination changed. Now, you will have two papers of 100 marks each, unlike earlier, where two papers of 40 marks each were taken. There will be a practical for 100 marks after your university exams. Hence, pathology as a total will carry 300 marks.

How to study Pathology?

You will often hear from your teachers that, Pathology is a very volatile subject, which is true. But does that mean you will never be able to learn it? Well, absolutely not. The key to mastering pathology is revision. Revision, revision, and only, revision.

Studying things once and expecting to remember you entirely in the exam will never work. Rather, regularly reading and revising will help you a lot in the long run.

Here are a few tips that will help you a lot to study Pathology in MBBS:

Stick to one book

Do not refer to multiple books. Doing so will only create confusion. Also, while revising for exams, you do not have a lot of time to revise your syllabus, hence you mustn’t increase your load by referring back to multiple books. Thoroughly read Harsh Mohan’s Textbook of Pathology and practice the diagrams well. You can practice the self-assessment questions from various resources.

Find online Pathology courses

It has been time and again proven that our pictorial and visual memory is very strong and long-lasting. Hence, watching videos, and attempting image or video-based questions related will help you a lot and feed things into your memory for a longer duration.

DigiNerve offers Pathology for UnderGrads online course, developed and mentored by the most renowned authors, Prof. Harsh Mohan, Prof. Ramadas Nayak, and Dr. Debasis Gochhait. The course has been enriched with their knowledge and experience which will help in fulfilling your study needs completely. All the topics are arranged in a sequential hierarchy to avoid confusion. The video lectures along with self-assessment questions and notes help you in concept-building. The lectures follow a case-based approach supported by video demonstrations. The lectures are richly illustrated including clinical, radiological, histological, and gross images along with flowcharts and tables for easy understanding and quick recall.

The course also focuses on practicals in pathology including gross specimens that are highly important for examination.

Make notes

Pathology subject is hefty, hence, keep your notes handy. This will help you to go through the highlights of each chapter in the least time during revision. Make tables and flowcharts while you study in class or watch video lectures. This will help you a lot in last-minute revision.

Practice diagrams

To have an edge over other students, you should practice diagrams frequently. Diagrams and flowcharts will fetch you more marks. You should be extremely well-versed in histopathology diagrams. The pathology book by Prof. Harsh Mohan provides excellent histopathology diagrams, which are easily reproducible in exams.

Pay attention in lab sessions

Do not ignore your practical classes. You can get to learn a lot in those few hours. You will get familiar with gross specimens and histopathology slides of various diseases there. Understand it all there and then, and half of your theory will be prepared in your lab only.

To get conceptual clarity with the help of MBBS courses online, click here.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q 1 – What is Pathology?

Ans : Pathology is referred to as the ‘study of diseases’. It is a branch of science that deals with structural and functional changes in diseases, which present with clinical signs and symptoms.

Q 2 – Why is it important to study Pathology?

Ans : It is important to study Pathology to understand the illness, from the cause and investigation of the disease to diagnosis and treatment. It becomes very difficult to treat patients and prevent disease progression unless you have a good knowledge of pathology subject. Learning all the terminologies used in pathology lab reports is also very crucial.

Q 3 – Which book should I read for Pathology?

Ans : “Textbook of Pathology” by Prof. Harsh Mohan is the most recommended pathology book for in-depth learning and scoring high in exams. Another recommended book for prof exam preparation is Ramadas Nayak’s “Pathology Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates”.

Q4 – Can I refer to online resources for studying Pathology?

Ans : Yes, online resources can be very helpful in concept building and learning. One such affordable and reliable resource is DigiNerve’s Pathology for UnderGrads course. The course is designed as per the new CBME curriculum. It consists of video lectures, notes, and self-assessment questions along with clinical case discussions and practicals in pathology.


INI-CET is a combined national-level entrance examination for admission to the medical postgraduate courses – MD, MS, DM (6 yrs), MCh (6 yrs), and MDS at INI institutes (Institute of National Importance). The INI-CET January session 2023 exam is around the corner. Getting admission to INI institutes is highly challenging and a dream for MBBS students. This is a highly competitive task to secure a seat in the renowned medical colleges in India.

Remember, Perseverance is the key.

The INI-CET exam is going to be held on 13th Nov 2022 for admission to the AIIMS INI-CET January session 2023.

Mode and Scheme of INI-CET January 2023 exam

Particulars Description
Mode of Examination Computer-based test (CBT)
Duration 3 hours (180 minutes)
Number of questions 200
Types of questions Objective type
Marking Scheme +1 mark for every correct response and -1/3 for every incorrect response


Important things to know:

  • If more than one candidate scores the same, then this tie-breaker situation is resolved by applying the following criteria sequentially:
    1. Less negative marks
    2. Older by age
  • Candidates equal to 8 (eight) times the number of postgraduate seats available in each category will be called for the first and second rounds of seat distribution based on the INI-CET merit list.
  • Spot Round Counseling will only be conducted if the seats will remain vacant even after the open round counseling.

List of Participating Institutes for INI-CET January 2023 Session

S. No. Name
1 AIIMS, New Delhi
2 AIIMS, Bhopal
3 AIIMS, Bhubaneswar
4 AIIMS, Jodhpur
5 AIIMS, Nagpur
6 AIIMS, Patna
7 AIIMS, Raipur
8 AIIMS, Rishikesh
9 AIIMS, Bibinagar
10 AIIMS, Bhatinda
11 AIIMS, Deoghar
12 AIIMS, Mangalagiri
13 AIIMS, Raebareli
14 JIPMER, Puducherry
15 NIMHANS, Bengaluru
16 PGIMER, Chandigarh
17 SCTIMST, Trivandrum


Here’s the tentative seat distribution (Category-wise) for admission to various MS/MD/DM (6 years)/MCh (6 years)/MDS courses at AIIMS, New Delhi and other 12 AIIMS through the INI-CET entrance examination for the January session of 2023.

Table 1: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, New Delhi:

Courses Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 17 7 5 3 1 1
MD Anatomy 5 2 1 1 1 0
MD Biochemistry 8 4 2 1 1 0
MD Biophysics 8 3 2 1 1 1
MD Community Medicine 9 5 2 1 0 1
MD Dermatology & Venerology 5 1 2 1 0 1
MD Emergency Medicine 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine 4 1 1 1 0 1
MD Geriatric Medicine 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Lab. Medicine 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Medicine 11 5 3 2 0 1
MD Microbiology 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Nuclear Medicine 4 3 0 0 0 1
MD Obstetrics & Gynecology 11 4 3 2 1 1
MD Ophthalmology 6 3 1 1 1 0
MS Orthopaedics 4 1 1 1 0 1
MS Otorhinolaryngology 5 1 1 1 1 1
MD Pediatrics 10 3 3 2 1 1
MD Palliative Medicine 4 3 1 0 0 0
MD Pathology 10 4 3 1 1 1
MD Pharmacology 6 1 2 1 1 1
MD Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2 2 0 0 0 0
MD Physiology 10 5 2 1 1 1
MD Psychiatry 4 1 1 1 0 1
MD Radiodiagnosis & Internventional Radiology 4 1 1 1 1 0
MD Radiation Oncology 4 3 1 0 0 0
MS Surgery 8 3 2 1 1 1
MD Transfusion Medicine 5 2 2 1 0 0
MDS Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics 1 0 1 0 0 0
MDS Pediatrics & Preventive Dentistry 2 0 1 0 0 1
MDS Prosthodontics 1 0 1 0 0 0
MCh Neuro Surgery M.Ch (Direct 6 year Course) 2 2 0 0 0 0
MCh Paediatric Surgery M.Ch (Direct 6 year Course) 2 2 0 0 0 0
DM Infectious Diseases DM(Direct 6 year Course) 4 4 0 0 0 0

Table 2: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Bhopal:

Courses Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 6 5 1 0 0 0
MD Anatomy 1 0 0 1 0 0
MD Biochemistry 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Community Medicine 5 2 1 0 1 1
MS ENT 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD General Medicine 3 1 0 1 0 1
MS General Surgery 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Microbiology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Obstetrics & Gynecology 3 1 0 1 1 0
MD Ophthalmology 3 1 1 0 0 1
MS Orthopaedics 4 2 1 1 0 0
MD Pediatrics 4 2 1 0 1 0
MD Pathology 4 1 1 1 0 1
MD Pharmacology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Physiology 1 0 0 1 0 0
MD Psychiatry 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Radiodiagnosis 4 1 2 0 0 1
MD Radiotherapy 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Transfusion Medicine & Blood Bank 2 0 0 1 1 0

Table 3: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Bhubaneswar:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 9 3 2 2 1 1
MD Anatomy 7 3 2 2 0 0
MD Biochemistry 3 1 0 1 1 0
MD Community Medicine 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Dermatology 3 1 1 0 1 0
MD Emergency Medicine 5 2 1 1 1 0
MS ENT 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 5 2 1 1 1 0
MD General Medicine 3 2 0 0 0 1
MS General Surgery 6 2 2 1 0 1
MD Microbiology 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD Nuclear Medicine 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Obst. & Gynecology 6 3 1 1 0 1
MD Ophthalmology 2 0 1 1 0 0
MS Orthopaedics 6 4 1 0 0 1
MD Pediatrics 5 2 1 1 1 0
MD Pathology 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Pharmacology 4 1 1 1 0 1
MD Physiology 6 2 1 1 1 1
MD PMR 2 1 0 0 0 1
MD Psychiatry 4 1 0 1 1 1
MD Radiodiagnosis 3 2 0 0 1 0
MD Radiotherapy 3 1 1 0 0 1
MD Transfusion Medicine 3 1 1 1 0 0


Table 4: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Jodhpur:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology & Critical Care 17 6 5 3 1 2
MD Anatomy 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Biochemistry 3 1 1 0 0 1
MD Community Medicine 6 2 2 1 1 0
MD Dermatology & Venerology 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Emergency Medicine 4 2 1 1 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 4 2 1 0 1 0
MD General Medicine 4 2 1 1 0 0
MS General Surgery 7 2 2 1 1 1
MD Microbiology 6 2 2 1 0 1
MD Nuclear Medicine 3 1 1 0 1 0
MD Obstetrics & Gynaecology 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Ophthalmology 4 2 1 1 0 0
MS Orthopaedics 5 2 1 0 1 1
MS Otorhinolaryngology 6 2 1 1 1 1
MD Paediatrics 8 3 2 1 1 1
MD Pathology 7 2 2 1 1 1
MD Pharmacology 3 2 1 0 0 0
MD Physiology 4 2 1 1 0 0
MD PMR 4 2 1 1 0 0
MD Psychiatry 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Radiology 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Transfusion Medicine & Blood Bank 2 1 1 0 0 0
MCh Paediatric Surgery (M.CH. 6 Years) 2 2 0 0 0 0
DM Radiation Oncology (D.M. 6 Years) 2 2 0 0 0 0


Table 5: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Patna:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 18 8 5 3 1 1
MD Anatomy 5 3 1 0 1 0
MD Biochemistry 9 4 3 2 0 0
MD Community Medicine & Family Medicine 8 3 2 1 0 2
MD Dermatology 1 0 0 1 0 0
MS ENT 2 1 0 0 1 0
MD Emergency Medicine 7 2 2 2 0 1
MD FMT (Forensic Medicine & Toxicology) 4 2 1 0 0 1
MD Medicine 6 5 1 0 0 0
MD Microbiology 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD OBG (Obstetrics & Gynaecology) 5 1 1 0 2 1
MD Ophthalmology 4 1 1 1 0 1
MS Orthopaedics 5 2 2 1 0 0
MD Pediatrics 7 2 2 1 1 1
MD Pathology 5 0 2 1 1 1
MD Pharmacology 3 3 0 0 0 0
MD Physiology 7 4 2 1 0 0
MD PMR 2 0 1 1 0 0
MD Psychiatry 4 2 1 0 0 1
MD Radiodiagnosis 4 1 1 1 1 0
MD Radiotherapy 2 0 2 0 0 0
MS Surgery 5 2 1 1 0 1
MCh Pediatric Surgery (MCh 6 Years) 3 3 0 0 0 0

Table 6: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Raipur:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 13 4 4 2 1 2
MD Anatomy 3 2 1 0 0 0
MD Biochemistry 4 1 1 1 0 1
MD Community Medicine 8 3 2 1 1 1
MD Dermatology 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD Emergency Medicine 8 3 2 1 1 1
MS ENT 5 2 2 1 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2 1 0 0 0 1
MD General Medicine 9 4 3 1 0 1
MS General Surgery 8 3 3 1 0 1
MD Microbiology 5 2 2 1 0 0
MD Nuclear Medicine 1 0 0 0 1 0
MD Obstetrics & Gynaecology 7 2 1 2 0 2
MD Ophthalmology 8 4 2 1 1 0
MS Orthopaedics 5 2 1 1 0 1
MD Pediatrics 7 3 1 1 1 1
MD Pathology 8 4 2 2 0 0
MD Pharmacology 3 2 1 0 0 0
MD Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2 0 1 1 0 0
MD Physiology 2 0 1 0 0 1
MD Psychiatry 4 1 1 1 1 0
MD Radiodiagnosis 4 1 2 1 0 0
MD Radiotherapy 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Transfusion Medicine 4 3 1 0 0 0
MDS Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery (MDS) 1 1 0 0 0 0
MDS Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry (MDS) 1 0 1 0 0 0

Table 7: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Rishikesh:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 7 3 2 1 0 1
MD Anatomy 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Biochemistry 4 2 0 0 1 1
MD Community & Family Medicine 3 2 1 0 0 0
MD Dermatology & Venerology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Emergency Medicine 3 2 0 1 0 0
MS ENT 3 2 1 0 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 2 1 0 0 0 1
MD General Medicine 4 3 1 0 0 0
MD Geriatric Medicine 1 0 1 0 0 0
MS General Surgery 3 1 1 0 0 1
MD Microbiology 2 1 0 0 0 1
MD Nuclear Medicine 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Obstetrics & Gynaecology 8 4 2 1 1 0
MD Ophthalmology 6 4 1 1 0 0
MS Orthopaedics 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Pediatrics 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Pathology 5 3 1 1 0 0
MD Pharmacology 2 1 0 0 0 1
MD Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD Physiology 3 2 0 0 0 1
MD Psychiatry 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Radiation Oncology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Radiodiagnosis 4 2 1 0 0 1
MD Respiratory Medicine 3 2 1 0 0 0
MD Transfusion Medicine 3 2 1 0 0 0
MDS Periodontics (MDS) 1 1 0 0 0 0
MDS Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery (MDS) 1 1 0 0 0 0
MCH 6 Years Pediatric Surgery (MCH 6 Years) 2 2 0 0 0 0
MCh Plastic, Reconstructive & Burns Surgery (M.CH. 6 Years) 2 2 0 0 0 0
MCh Neurosurgery (MCH 6 yrs) 1 1 0 0 0 0


Table 8: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Nagpur:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Anatomy 1 0 0 0 0 1
MD Biochemistry 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Community Medicine 3 1 2 0 0 0
MD Dermatology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD General Medicine 3 0 2 0 0 1
MS General Surgery 3 0 1 1 1 0
MD Microbiology 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Obstetrics & Gynaecology 3 1 1 1 0 0
MD Ophthalmology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MS Orthopaedics 1 1 0 0 0 0
MS Otorhinolaryngology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Pediatrics 3 0 1 0 1 1
MD Pathology 3 0 1 1 1 0
MD Pharmacology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Physiology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Psychiatry 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Radiodiagnosis 1 1 0 0 0 0
MDS Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics (MDS) 0


0 0 0 0 0


Table 9: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Bibinagar:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anatomy 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Anaesthesiology 2 2 0 0 0 0
MD Biochemistry 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Community Medicine & Family Medicine 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD FMT 1 0 1 0 0 0
MD General Medicine 2 1 0 0 0 1
MS General Surgery 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Microbiology 2 1 0 0 1 0
MD Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2 0 1 1 0 0
MS Orthopaedics 2 2 0 0 0 0
MD Peediatrics 2 0 1 1 0 0
MD Pathology 2 1 0 0 0 1


Table 10: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Bathinda:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anatomy 1 0 0 1 0 0
MS General Surgery 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Microbiology 2 1 0 0 1 0
MD Ophthalmology 1 0 0 0 1 0
MD Physiology 1 0 0 1 0 0
MD Psychiatry 1 0 1 0 0 0


Table 11: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Deoghar:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Biochemistry 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Community Medicine & Family Medicine 1 1 0 0 0 0
MS General Surgery 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Microbiology 1 0 1 0 0 0
MD Pharmacology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Physiology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Anaesthesiology 1 0 0 1 0 0
MD Anatomy 1 0 1 0 0 0
MD FMT 1 1 0 0 0 0
MS Orthopaedics 1 0 0 0 0 1
MD Pathology 1 1 0 0 0 0


Table 12: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Mangalagiri:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Anatomy 2 0 0 1 0 1
MD Community & Family Medicine 2 1 0 0 1 0
MS ENT 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD General Medicine 1 1 0 0 0 0
MS General Surgery 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD OBG 2 0 1 0 0 1
MS Orthopaedics 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Pediatrics 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD Pharmacology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Physiology 1 0 1 0 0 0
MD Psychiatry 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Radiodiagnosis 2 1 1 0 0 0


Table 13: Tentative seat distribution for INI-CET January 2023 session at AIIMS, Raebareli:

Course Subject/Specialty Total Number of Seats UR OBC SC ST EWS
MD Anaesthesiology 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Anatomy 2 0 0 1 0 1
MD Community & Family Medicine 2 1 0 0 1 0
MS ENT 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD General Medicine 1 1 0 0 0 0
MS General Surgery 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD OBG 2 0 1 0 0 1
MS Orthopaedics 2 1 1 0 0 0
MD Pediatrics 2 1 0 1 0 0
MD Pharmacology 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Physiology 1 0 1 0 0 0
MD Psychiatry 1 1 0 0 0 0
MD Radiodiagnosis 2 1 1 0 0 0


Last-Minute Tips for INI-CET Exam:

  • Candidates must carry all the asked documents such as INI-CET admit card, passport size photograph, valid photo ID proof, and a copy of MCI registration certificate with them on the exam day.
  • Reverify all your documents before coming to the exam hall.
  • Candidates are advised to go through all the guidelines issued by AIIMS for the examination.
  • Candidates must reach the INI-CET exam center before time to avoid any chaos.
  • Avoid Stress and be confident.
  • Eat healthy and sleep well.
  • Time management is a must before and during the exam.

To get conceptual clarity on the MBBS courses online, click here

MBBS course, in the initial two years, revolves around non-clinical and para-clinical subjects. These subjects form the foundation for the clinical subjects that are a part of the last two years of the course.

It has been more than two and a half years since COVID-19 began, and ever since then, lives have changed for the good and bad. More than anything else, what we know now as medicos is, that a single microorganism can do wonders when it comes to projecting virulence. Lately, due to those same reasons, this chapter in our microbiology book has gained importance, and this subject, as a whole, is now in the sheer limelight.

As medical students, it seems difficult to develop an interest in subjects that do not seem to have any visible application, like microbiology, and other non-clinical subjects, like biochemistry. However, irrespective of the specialty, you’ll be in, you will be expected to have complete knowledge of all your undergraduate subjects, and that is when you’ll be known as a Top Doc. For this reason, you can’t ignore any of your nonclinical subjects, no matter how boring they might seem.

Microbiology course for undergrads is not as disinteresting as most students think it is. Especially after the introduction of the new Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME), the way of learning and teaching microbiology has been improvised a lot whereas the core syllabus isn’t changed much. Earlier, it was based on organism-based approach, but it has now been completely changed to systemic approach, focusing on each of our body’s systems separately and then classifying diseases accordingly.

As an undergraduate, to excel in the university exams, you must know the examination pattern and the important topics of the microbiology subject.

Changes in the MBBS Prof Exam Pattern

The MBBS prof examination pattern is a little different from what batches before 2019 had appeared for. Earlier, the paper had 2 parts of 40 marks each, with 20 marks of practical. From 2019 batch onwards, the pattern has changed to 2 parts of 100 marks each, and a 100 marks practical, i.e., a total of 300 marks for each of the MBBS 2nd year subjects. The exam now consists of MCQs, case scenarios, short answer questions, and long answer questions.

So, whenever you begin reading microbiology for your final exams, start from the beginning because the entire microbiology is an extension of general microbiology. If your general microbiology is weak, you will never gain confidence in the rest of the syllabus.

Recommended books for Microbiology for UnderGrads include “Essentials of Medical Microbiology” and “Essentials of Medical Parasitology” by Dr. Apurba Sastry and Sandhya Bhat.

Important Topics of Microbiology in MBBS

Let’s know the important topics in Microbiology from MBBS prof exam’s and entrance examination’s perspective.

A medico can easily get to learn all the important topics with Dr. Apurba Sastry’s “Essentials of Medical Microbiology” book. Besides the book, one can also get conceptual clarity with the online course – Microbiology for UnderGrads by Dr. Apurba Sastry, Dr. Sandhya Bhat, and Dr. Deepashree R. This course is aligned with the textbook by the same author.


  • Contributions of Louis Pasteur
  • Koch’s Postulates
  • Bacterial cell wall
  • Flagella
  • Bacterial growth curve (a must-know topic)
  • Anaerobic culture methods
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing
  • Horizontal gene transfer
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Exotoxin vs endotoxins
  • Isolation techniques for viruses
  • Classification with examples (parasites and fungi)


  • Innate immunity vs acquired immunity
  • Active immunity vs passive immunity
  • Definitions of antigen, hapten, super antigens
  • Structure of an antibody
  • Various classes of immunoglobulins
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Basic mechanism of precipitation reaction and agglutination reaction
  • ELISA (in detail)
  • MHC
  • Cytokines
  • Hypersensitivity reactions with their types
  • Mechanisms and examples of autoimmunity
  • Mechanism of graft rejection
  • Types and examples of vaccines

Before you begin reading the systems, there are chapters on sterilization and disinfection, which have gained more importance after COVID-19. These are highly important chapters because they will teach you basic things like biomedical waste management, PPE kits etc.

So, there are a few questions that are very frequently asked from

  • Healthcare-acquired infections (definition, and examples)
  • The steps of hand washing (will rarely come as a theory question but this holds practical application)
  • Types of masks
  • Steps of donning and doffing
  • CAUTI and VAP
  • Definitions of sterilization, disinfection, and cleaning
  • Autoclave
  • ETO
  • Disinfectants (according to the levels)
  • Methods to test the efficacy of sterilant
  • Color coding of dustbins
  • Definition and management of needle stick injury
  • Water surveillance


Bloodstream & Cardiovascular Infections

  • Infective endocarditis
  • Acute rheumatic fever
  • Fuo
  • Typhoid
  • Scrub typhus
  • Brucellosis and leptospirosis
  • HIV (in detail)
  • Dengue
  • Malaria
  • Leishmaniasis
  • African sleeping sickness
  • Lymphatic filariasis
  • Systemic candidiasis

Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

  • Mechanism of diarrhea and agents
  • Lab diagnosis of diarrhea
  • Food poisoning
  • Botulism
  • Types of E.coli
  • Shigella
  • Cholera
  • Rotavirus diarrhea
  • Intestinal amoebiasis
  • Giardiasis
  • Intestinal taeniasis
  • Trichura
  • Entrobias
  • Ascariasis
  • Hookworm

The Hepatobiliary System

  • Hepatitis
  • Liver abscess
  • Hydatid cyst

Skin & Musculoskeletal System Infections

  • Diabetic foot
  • Staph aureus infections
  • Streptococcus pyogenes infections
  • Gas gangrene
  • Lab diagnosis of leprosy
  • HSV infections
  • VZV infections
  • Measles
  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Cutaneous larva migrans
  • Superficial mycoses

Respiratory Tract Infections

  • Agents of respiratory tract infections
  • Diptheria
  • Pneumonia
  • Tb (a very important topic for us as Indians because this disease is very common in our country)
  • Influenza
  • Coronavirus (which you cannot skip)
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Aspergillosis

CNS Infections

  • Meningitis
  • Tetanus
  • Rabies especially the vaccine prophylaxis
  • Cerebral malaria
  • Sleeping sickness

Urinary tract Infections

  • Pathogenesis of UTI
  • Syphilis, especially the lab diagnosis
  • Agents of UTI
  • Chancroid
  • Chlamydia infections

Miscellaneous Infections

  • Congenital syphilis
  • Oncogenic viruses
  • Zoonotic infections
  • Bite wound infections

You will also have to prepare for the practical exam, wherein, passing the practical exam is as important as the theory exam. Moreover, because it holds a weightage of 100 marks, you cannot go unprepared.

Click here to watch online microbiology video lecture snippets by Dr. Apurba Sastry.

Must know topics for practical examination

  • Basic staining techniques, like gram staining and Zn staining, Albert staining
  • Bacterial colony characteristics and their biochemical identification reactions
  • Principles behind the reactions and their reagents.
  • parasites and how to prepare mounts of stool specimens
  • OSPE stations where several instruments used in the microbiology lab can be kept for spot identification.

Important Topics for Microbiology subject in MBBS (For NEET-PG and INI-CET entrance examinations)

During your MBBS, not just the university exams, but your focus should also be on the early preparation of your competitive exams if you dream to settle in a decent post-graduation specialty. There are two main exams currently being held in India, the INI-CET and NEET PG 2023/NEXT. The weightage of microbiology in the INI-CET is approximately 14-16 questions every year and in NEET PG 2023 almost 10 questions are asked every year.

Some of the important topics are mentioned below:

General Microbiology

Includes bacterial cell wall, bacterial toxins, hot air oven, autoclave, chemical antiseptics and disinfectants, disinfection in a healthcare setting, mac conkey agar, bacterial gene transfer (transformation, transduction, and conjugation), lytic and lysogenic phase of a bacteriophage life cycle, and bacterial growth curve.


Includes morphology, virulence factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and lab diagnosis of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Enterobacteriaceae (coliforms-proteus, shigella, salmonella), Vibrio, and Mycobacterium (tuberculosis).

Slight overview of Neisseria, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Mycoplasma, wound infection (staph), and invasive diarrhea is important.

Cover UTI, STDs (Syphilis), Meningitis, and FUO.


Study Orthomyxoviruses: Influenza (Hemagglutinin, Neuraminidase, Antigenic drift, and shift), Hepatitis B, lab diagnosis, Corona, HIV, ELISA, and a slight overview of Herpes.

Cover Picornavirus: Polio, Rabies virus


Include Classification, Dermatophytes, Mycetoma, Rhinosporidiosis, and Histoplasmosis.

Cover Opportunistic: Aspergillosis, Candidiasis, Zygomycosis, Cryptococcus, and Pneumocystis


Life cycles, morphology, lab diagnosis, and clinical manifestations of Ascaris, Trichuria, Enterobius, Echinococcosis (Hydatid cyst), Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium, Leishmania and Wuchereria, Taenia, Ancylostoma, and Toxoplasmosis.

Don’t miss out on these important topics to score high in exams. Undoubtedly, all of us have a different method of learning and DigiNerve has got you covered in all situations. If you are among those who grasp more from visual learning, Microbiology for UnderGrads is one of the best online microbiology course designed by renowned authors, Dr. Apurba Sastry, Dr. Sandhya Bhat, and Dr. Deepashree R. This online microbiology course comprises highly illustrative video lectures and notes, along with self-assessment questions and case studies. The lectures follow the new CBME approach to provide conceptual clarity and score high in the prof as well as entrance examination.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. What are the major topics of microbiology?

The important topics for microbiology include Bacterial cell walls, bacterial toxins, hot air ovens, autoclaves, chemical antiseptics, and disinfectants. In the Bacteriology module, Morphology, virulence factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and lab diagnosis of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Enterobacteriaceae (coliforms-proteus, shigella, salmonella), Vibrio, Mycobacterium (tuberculosis) and in Parasitology module, Life cycles, morphology, lab diagnosis, and clinical manifestations of Ascaris, Trichuria, Enterobius, Echinococcosis (Hydatid cyst), Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium, Leishmania and Wuchereria, Taenia, Ancylostoma, and Toxoplasmosis are important topics for exams.

  1. Is microbiology important for NEET PG?

Yes, microbiology is important for the NEET PG exam. Approximately, 10 questions come from the microbiology subject in the NEET PG entrance examination every year.

  1. How to learn Microbiology for MBBS online?

A medico can subscribe to the online microbiology course or access the online video lectures available on youtube. Microbiology for UnderGrads is one of the best online microbiology courses designed by renowned authors, Dr. Apurba Sastry, Dr. Sandhya Bhat, and Dr. Deepashree R. This online microbiology course comprises highly illustrative video lectures and notes, along with self-assessment questions and case studies. The lectures follow the new CBME approach to provide conceptual clarity and score high in the prof as well as entrance examination.

  1. Which is the best book for microbiology for MBBS students?

The recommended books for Microbiology for UnderGrads include “Essentials of Medical Microbiology” and “Essentials of Medical Parasitology” by Dr. Apurba Sastry and Sandhya Bhat.


The National Medical Commission (Undergraduate Medical Education Board) has issued new guidelines and the academic calendar for MBBS 2022-2023 batch on 12th Oct 2022.

As per the new NMC guidelines, the classes for the first-year MBBS batch will start on 15th Nov 2022.

Academic Calendar for the 2022-2023 MBBS Batch

According to the new NMC guidelines, there is a change in the academic calendar of MBBS 2022-2023. However, the duration of the MBBS course is the same i.e., 5.5 years including a one-year rotational internship.

Professional Year Time Frame Subjects Months(Teaching + Exam + Results)
1st 15th Nov’22 to 15th Dec’23 Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry 13 months
2nd 16th Dec’23 to 15th Jan’25 Pathology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology 13 months
3rd (III-part-1) 16th Jan’25 to 30th Nov’25 Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Community Medicine/PSM 10.5 months
4th (III-part-2) Dec’25 to May’27 General Surgery, General Medicine, Pediatrics, Obstetrics & Gynecology, ENT,
17.5 months
Internship 1st Jun’27 to 31st May’28 As per the CRMI 2021 Regulations 12 months
PG 1st Jul ‘28

For the academic year 2022-2023, the one-year compulsory rotational internship will start from the 1st June 2027 and end on 31st May 2028, as per the CRMI 2021 regulations.

The following guidelines have been issued by the NMC for the 2022-23 MBBS batch:

  • The MBBS batch will commence on 15th Nov 2022.
  • The college vacations and examination schedules may be notified as per the affiliated universities of the respective colleges.

Other board guidelines are as follows:

  1. Regarding Electives – 2 blocks of 15 days each are to be adjusted by the colleges for
    • Pre/para-clinical branches
    • Clinical branches
  2. In the 2022-2023 academic batch, the supplementary exams will be conducted with a gap of 1 month from the regular exams and the results will be declared within 15 days.
  3. There shall be no supplementary MBBS batches.
  4. The remaining rules and regulations shall remain the same as per the GMER (Graduate Medical Education Regulations) 1997. You can visit the site for GMER 1997 details: https://www.nmc.org.in/rules-regulations/graduate-medical-education-regulations-1997/
  5. The Yoga and Family Adoption Program through village outreach shall continue for the 2021-2022 MBBS Batch.

Along with the changes in the curriculum and the guidelines mentioned above, a few more notifications have been issued by the NMC from the 2022 batch:

  • The NMC has created an Anti-Ragging Committee and Dr. Aruna V. Vanikar, President, UGMEB has been appointed as the chairperson of the committee.
  • In the NMC notification stated on 4 Oct 2022, the implementation of HMIS (Hospital Management Information System) is mandated in all medical colleges.
  • The NEET UG counselling link is active from 11th Oct 2022 on the MCC official website: https://mcc.nic.in.


Click here to read about the NMC NExT Exam update 2023 including the guidelines, complete structure, exam dates and more.

Forensic Medicine & Toxicology is one of the important subjects, included in the 3rd Prof of the MBBS curriculum. The word ‘forensic’ has been derived from the word ‘forensis’ which means forum. FMT course in MBBS makes a medico learn the application of the knowledge of forensic medical sciences to legal issues. Toxicology includes the study of toxic elements, poisons’ properties, activities, toxicity, fetal dose, detection, quantification, therapy, and autopsy results. In this course, a medico is well informed about their medico-legal responsibility during the practice. Thus, forensic toxicology focuses on the legal and medical consequences of the toxic effects of chemicals on humans. In US & Europe, Forensic Medicine is also known as Legal Medicine or State Medicine.

Objectives of FMT course in MBBS

  • The course provides complete knowledge of the law in regard to medical practice, medical ethics, and code of conduct.
  • It talks about the medico-legal facets of medicine.
  • The purpose of the course is to make undergraduate students much capable of observing and legally inferring correct conclusions. The students are also made to learn the way of handling and keeping track of criminal cases or medico-legal cases in an integrated manner.
  • It provides knowledge of the administration, relevant medical laws, procedures, and their requirements.
  • The Forensic Medicine course must not be thought as just a passing subject, its significance is well-ascertained during medical practice.
  • Practically, a medico must develop a basic awareness of the legal system, observe, and analyze cases carefully, and act calmly.

Course Content

The MBBS course curriculum of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology:


  • General Introduction
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Clinical Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Jurisprundence
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Forensic Sciences


  • General Toxicology
  • Clinical Toxicology
  • Environmental Toxicology
  • Analytical Toxicology

Along with the theory lectures, the MBBS course curriculum also includes practical and demonstration sessions in Forensic Medicine & Toxicology.

Pre-requisite for success in FMT

The four things are pre-requisite for success in FMT:

  • Power of Observation
  • Power of Deduction
  • Wide range of exact knowledge
  • Power of constructive imagination

Tips on how to approach FMT the right way

  1. Read from Recommended books
  • Review of Forensics Medicine & Toxicology (5th edition)” by Dr. Gautam Biswas. The book has many features like, each chapter starts with the Learning Objectives, further categorized into (a) must know and (b) desirable to know topics. It also includes important topics, MCQs, image-based questions, and case studies at the end of each chapter.
  • Principles of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology” by Rajesh Bardale
  • Essentials of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology” by KS Narayan Reddy, and OP Murty
  1. Focus on Conceptual clarity

A student must focus on clearing the concepts for a better understanding of the subject. Mugging up in medical sciences doesn’t help in the long run. FMT is a blend of theoretical medico-legal knowledge along with practical sessions on criminal cases, post-mortem cases, chemical injuries, and a lot more. So, it is important to clear all your doubts and focus on conceptual clarity to excel in the subject.

  1. Simplify your learning with notes

Making notes help filter down the lengthy content of the syllabus. It helps in learning and memorizing concepts easily. It proves for a great benefit during the last-minute revision. Notes also help in memorizing the topics at the time of explanation during lectures and marking important points. They are the best for a quick revision before exams.

  1. Focus on high-yield topics:

Some of the important topics in FMT are:

  • Legal Procedure
  • Identification
  • Thanatology
  • Asphyxia
  • Injuries
  • Rape
  • General toxicology
  • OPC poisoning
  • Snakebite
  • Medicinal poisoning

Watch this video to know the right way to approach FMT in MBBS

  • Attend Case Demonstrations

Medical is not just reading books and learning. It is more of practical knowledge and application of the theory into the practical and real world. In medical science, case studies and demonstrations are a must. A medico should never skip any case demonstration session. They form a base for treating the patients in their medical practice efficiently. It is crucial to enhance your FMT learning with practical sessions and case studies. A medico can also understand the case demonstrations via visuals and 3D imaging available in the online MBBS courses.

  1. Memorize well

The easiest and the best way to memorize is to learn through flowcharts, images, charts, and tables. Learning in a structured format helps in memorizing well in long run. It helps in correlating the topics and clearing the concepts. Try to make your mnemonics for learning to make the most of your visual memory.

  1. Practice Assessment questions

The best way to analyze your learning is to go through maximum self-assessment questions. It helps in a recap of the topic studied. It also gives a green light to the conceptual clarity of the topic. It not only improves knowledge but is highly beneficial from an exam perspective. A medico can opt for online FMT courses that provide frequently asked self-assessment questions.

Online Lectures to boost your learning

The Forensic Medicine & Toxicology for UnderGrads course has been developed and conducted by a renowned faculty and author, Dr. Gautam Biswas, who is known for his publications “Review of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology”, “Recent Advances in Forensic Medicine and Toxicology volume-1 and 2”, and “Manual of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology”.

The course is well equipped with highly illustrative video lectures with 1400+ self-assessment questions and worthy notes. Case scenarios and case demonstrations are also included in the online FMT course.

The lectures for the course interestingly cover every relevant topic. The course’s content is clear and succinct with flowcharts, animations, brief videos, photographs, tables, differentiation, and line diagrams to help students understand concepts better. It includes case studies at the very beginning and discussion at the end of sessions along with live videos to explain the concept/procedures. Relevant MCQs have been integrated in every lecture including few image-based MCQs after each topic are also provided with explanation. It covers points to remember at the end for viva and forthcoming NEET PG 2023 exams. The FMT online course is designed for medical students to help them be ready for both their university exams and the NEET PG/NExT Exam.

To get conceptual clarity on Clinical Forensic Medicine, Click here.

Table of Content – Forensic Medicine & Toxicology for UnderGrads course

  • Orientation
  • General Information
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Clinical Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Jurisprudence (Medical Law and ethics)
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Forensic Laboratory investigation in medical-legal practice
  • Thanatology
  • General Toxicology
  • Pharmaceutical Toxicology
  • Sociomedical Toxicology
  • Jurisprudence and Forensic Medicine – Qbank
  • Toxicology – Qbank

All these modules include detailed sub-topics as per the CBME curriculum.

Scope of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology

  • Forensic Scientist
  • Forensic Expert
  • Clinical Investigator
  • Criminologist
  • Research Associate
  • Forensic Medicine Professor
  • Jobs at Intelligence Bureau
  • Forensic Analyst at Investigation firms
  • Manager Forensic Advisory
  • Forensic Pathologist
  • Medical Officer
  • Toxicologist

A medico must keep all senses open while dealing with FMT cases and willingness to work is a must.


  1. Where can I study FMT online?

Dr. Gautam Biswas’s Forensic Medicine & Toxicology for UnderGrads course is an online FMT course which is well equipped with highly illustrative video lectures, concise notes and 1400+ self-assessment questions. Case scenarios and case demonstrations are also included in this course.

  1. What is FMT in MBBS?

FMT discloses the medico-legal facets of medicine. The purpose of the course is to make undergraduate students much capable of observing and legally inferring exact conclusions. The students are also made to learn the way of handling and keeping track of criminal cases or medico-legal cases in an integrated manner. A medico is well informed about their medico-legal responsibility during their medical practice.

  1. How do I pass forensic medicine in MBBS?

Make sure not to skip any lecture and case demonstration sessions. Make notes and study on regular basis. You can also opt for an online FMT course to boost your learning with the help of video lectures, case demonstrations, notes, and self-assessment questions for practice.


A cataract is referred to as the development of any opacity in the lens or its capsule. It may occur either due to the formation of opaque lens fibers (congenital and developmental cataracts) or due to a degenerative process leading to the opacification of normally formed lens fibers (acquired cataracts).


Senile Cataract Patient

The Etiological Classification includes the following types of cataracts:

  • Congenital and Developmental Cataract
  • Acquired Cataract
  • Senile cataract
  • Traumatic cataract
  • Cataracts in systemic diseases
  • Electric cataract
  • Radiational cataract
  • Toxic cataract

The Morphological Classification includes the following types of cataracts:

  • Capsular Cataract
  • Subcapsular Cataract
  • Cortical Cataract
  • Nuclear Cataract
  • Polar Cataract


Senile cataract is also known as Age-related cataract and is the most common type of acquired cataract. It affects equally all persons of either sex above the age of 50 years. The condition is usually bilateral, but in most cases, one eye is affected before the other.


Some of the risk factors associated with Senile cataracts:

  1. Age: It is the most important factor.
  2. Sex: Its prevalence is greater in females.
  3. Heredity
  4. Ultraviolet Irradiations: It is responsible for the early onset and early maturation of senile cataracts.
  5. Dietary factors: Diet deficiency in certain proteins, amino acids, and vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin A, C, E).
  6. Dehydration Crisis
  7. Smoking: When a person smokes, it leads to the accumulation of pigmented molecules like 3-hydroxykynurenine and chromophores, which lead to the yellowing of the lens.


Lens gets affected in different ways in nuclear and cortical senile cataracts. In cortical cataracts, there is a decrease in the soluble crystalline lens proteins, amino acids, and potassium associated with an increase in the concentration of sodium, which ultimately results in over hydration of the lens. While in nuclear cataracts, there is age-related nuclear sclerosis associated with dehydration and compaction of the lens. It is associated with an increase in water-insoluble proteins.


  1. In-nuclear type of Cataract

The sclerotic process continues and leads to the hardening of the lens and decreases the ability of accommodation. The changes start from the centre and spread towards the periphery slowly.

  1. In-cortical type of cataract

Firstly, there is a stage of lamellar separation which is the earliest sign where the formation of vacuoles occurs in the cortex. These changes are reversible. It is followed by a stage of an incipient cataract where wedge-shaped or saucer-shaped opacity is seen. Then comes the final three stages of cataracts: immature, mature, and hyper mature (morgagnian and sclerotic) cataracts.


The clinical features include the symptoms, signs, and complications.


  1. Glare
  2. Uniocular diplopia
  3. Colored halos around light
  4. Poor colored discrimination
  5. Black spots in front of the eye
  6. Image blur and misty vision
  7. Deterioration of vision


  1. Visual acuity: It is 6/9 to PL+ and PR in all quadrants
  2. Test for iris shadow: It is seen in immature cataracts.
  3. Colour of lens:
  • In nuclear cataracts: amber, brown, black, reddish
  • In immature senile cataract: greyish white
  • In mature senile cataract: pearly white
  • In morgagnian hyper mature cataract: milky white
  • In sclerotic hyper mature cataract: dirty white
  1. Morphology of lens: It is best seen by slit lamp examination.
  2. Distant direct ophthalmoscopy:
  • Absence of opacity: reddish yellow fundal glow observed
  • Partial cataractous: black shadow against the red glow observed
  • Complete cataractous: no red glow observed


  1. Phacoanaphylactic uveitis
  2. Lens-induced glaucoma
  3. Subluxation or dislocation of the lens

Click here to watch the best online video lectures on lens and cataract.



To delay the progression of the disease:

  • Vitamin E and aspirin can be taken
  • Topical preparations containing iodide salts of calcium and potassium can be taken
    1. To treat the cause of cataract: control diabetes, remove cataractogenic drugs, removal of irradiations
    2. To improve vision in early stages of cataract: prescription of glasses, arrangement of illumination, use of dark goggles, and mydriatic agent.


  1. Visual Improvement
  2. Medical Indications
  3. Cosmetic Indications


1.) Ocular examination

It includes the following parameters:

  • Visual status assessment
  • Pupil
  • Anterior segment evaluation
  • Intraocular pressure
  • Examination of lids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus
  • Dilated fundus examination
  • Retinal function tests
  • B- scan ultrasonography
  • Electrophysiological evaluation
  • Keratometry, corneal topography, and biometry

2. General medical examination of the patient

The medical examination should include the following:

  • History of current medication
  • Any family history
  • Investigations

3. Preoperative medications

The preoperative prescribed medication includes:

  • Antibiotics
  • IOP lowering agents
  • Mydriatic agent
  • Anaesthetic agents

4. Surgery

  • Earlier, couching was done in which the cataractous lens was pushed into the vitreous cavity, and it was the first surgery introduced.
  • Then, crude extracapsular cataract extraction was done but soon it became unpopular due to marked complications.
  • Later, intracapsular cataract extraction was introduced but nowadays it is not performed due to complications. It is reserved only in cases of subluxated or dislocated lens.
  • Now comes the modern technique of extracapsular cataract extraction, which is the preferred method in all cases of cataract surgeries.


In this method, the anterior capsule’s major portion is removed along with the anterior epithelium, nucleus, and cortex leaving behind the intact posterior capsule.


  • For almost all types of cataract surgeries in adults and children unless contraindicated.


  • In the subluxated or dislocated lens.

        Advantages :

  • Universal operation
  • Posterior chamber IOL can be implanted after ECCE
  • Postoperative vitreous-related complications are not seen
  • Incidences of postoperative complications are much less like endophthalmitis, cystoid macular edema, and retinal detachment.
  • Postoperative astigmatism is less
  • Incidence of secondary rubeosis in diabetics is reduced

Different Techniques of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction:

  1. Conventional extracapsular cataract extraction
  2. Manual small incision cataract surgery
  3. Phacoemulsification
  4. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery

Presently, the phacoemulsification technique has become the preferred method of cataract extraction worldwide because the complications are much lesser as compared to other methods of cataract extraction.

However, in countries like India, manual small incision cataract surgery has the advantages of sutureless surgery as well as a low-cost alternative to phacoemulsification.


The surgical methods opted for the childhood cataracts, include:

  1. Lens aspiration
  2. Lensectomy


IOL is the method of choice for correcting aphakia.

Types Of IOLs:

  • Based on the method of fixation in the eye, the different types of IOL are:
  1. Anterior chamber IOL
  2. Iris-supported lens
  3. Posterior chamber lenses
  • Depending upon the material of manufacturing, the different types of IOL are:
  1. Rigid IOLs
  2. Foldable IOLs
  3. Thinner foldable IOLs
  4. Ultra-thin foldable IOLs
  • Based on focusing abilities, the different types of IOL are:
  1. Monofocal IOLs
  2. Multifocal IOLs
  3. Trifocal IOLs
  • Special function IOLs, the different types of IOL are:
  1. Aniridia IOLs
  2. Implantable miniature telescope
  3. Piggyback IOLs
  • Spherical versus Toric IOLs
  • Aphakic versus Phakic Refractive IOLs

Indications of IOL:

It is done in each and every case being operated for cataract unless and until it is contraindicated.

BIOMETRY is the calculation of IOL:

Nowadays online toric IOL power is calculated.

Equipment for Biometry:

  1. A-Scan Ultrasonic Biometer
  2. Optical Biometer

Techniques of IOL Implantation:

  • Primary IOL Implantation refers to the use of IOL during any surgery for a cataract.
  • Secondary IOL Implantation is done to correct aphakia in the previously operated eye.


  1. The patient is asked to sit leaned back on chair for 30 minutes.
  2. Any NSAIDs may be given orally for mild to moderate postoperative pain.
  3. The bandage or eye patch is applied till the next morning. The eye is inspected for any postoperative complications.
  4. Antibiotic eye drops are used 4 times a day for 7-10 days.
  5. Topical steroids eye drops are given 3 to 4 times a day and are taken for 6-8 weeks.
  6. Topical ketorolac or any other NSAIDs with eye drops are given 2 to 3 times a day for 4 weeks.
  7. Topical timolol eye drops

To get conceptual clarity in Ophthalmology online, subscribe to CBME & NEET-oriented Ophthalmology for UnderGrads course.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What causes senile cataract?

Ans: Senile cataract etiopathogenesis is not exactly clear, but it is mainly due to the age factor. Other factors are also responsible like heredity, ultraviolet radiation, dietary factors, dehydration crisis, and smoking.

  1. What is the most common type of senile cataract?

Ans: Nuclear sclerotic type is the most common of senile cataracts in which there is progressive sclerosis of the nucleus of the lens. It makes the lens inelastic and decreases the  accommodation ability, which hampers the light rays to pass.

  1. Is senile cataract curable?

Ans: Yes, senile cataract is curable. It can be treated through surgeries like extracapsular cataract extraction and intracapsular cataract extraction.

  1. What happens if cataracts are left untreated?

Ans: If the cataracts are left untreated, they lead to various complications like phacoanaphylactic uveitis, lens-induced glaucoma, and subluxation or dislocation of the lens.


Performing invasive and non-invasive treatments on the human body is the surgeon’s basic role. The surgeon attempts to assist the patient in overcoming the disease by assisting the patient with deformities and injuries through the operation. Surgery has a variety of specialties; one can become an eye surgeon, general surgeon, neurosurgeon, cardiovascular surgeon, plastic surgeon, orthopaedic surgeon, or oncologist. You would have observed that the surgeons have a crew supporting them, who make all the necessary preparations before the procedure may begin and assist during the surgery. A surgeon is a medical professional who operates or conducts surgery on patients. Along with doing elective and preventive surgeries on the patients, these medical professionals also perform diagnostic procedures.

Why Consider to Become a Surgeon in India?

India is the second-most populous nation in the world, and its healthcare industry has only grown since its independence. With the growing population and requirement for healthcare facilities, the demand for doctors is increasing.

While we all aim to achieve specific goals in our lives, we all know that we enjoy the journey more than we appreciate the realization of our goals. The field of medicine is fascinating too. Being in a position of understanding the human body and knowing how to bring it back on track and the experiences in between are the ones that you will cherish for your lifetime. Moreover, the satisfaction of saving lives goes far beyond the feeling of anything. Being a doctor is an honor and a responsibility of a lifetime.

There can be millions of reasons to pursue a career in medicine and become a doctor which can be listed here. However, the most important reason is your call. The pathway to becoming a doctor is not an easy one. If you want to become a doctor, you need self-motivation and an unshakable reason for pursuing a career in medicine that should come from within.

How to become a Surgeon in India

Here are a few guidelines that you must follow if you want to become a surgeon in India:

  1. Passing the 12th Grade: Candidates must first complete their 12th grade or pre-university course (PUC) in physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) with the necessary cut-offs to become a doctor.
  2. Clearing NEET-UG: Students are now required to qualify for the NEET entrance examination. With about 76,928 medical seats available, it is the only entrance exam for MBBS admission in India to MCI-recognized medical colleges. After you get the required percentile, depending on the cut-off marks and attending counseling procedure paves a way for admission to the MBBS course.
  3. Completing MBBS course: One of the most well-known graduate degrees for becoming a doctor in India is MBBS, and those who achieved the required percentile in the NEET exam are qualified to pursue MBBS. This 5-and-a-half-year program offers Pre, Basic, and Paramedical topics. A medico gets to learn Medicine & Surgery in MBBS. Additionally, students must complete a 12-month required rotational internship during their MBBS. After successful completion of your MBBS degree, you become eligible for higher studies in Medical Sciences.
  4. Clearing NEET-PG: The NEET-PG (National Eligibility Entrance Test-PG), which is administered by the National Board of Examination, would be the basis for admission to MS courses in medical colleges in India. For admission to AIIMS and JIPMER and other INI- Institutes, the INI-CET examination is conducted. Candidates must meet particular examination Eligibility Criteria to pursue an MS degree in an Indian medical college. Further, selection and admissions to medical colleges depend on the cut-off score and merit list.
  5. Pursuing an MS degree: The next step after earning an MBBS degree and clearing the NEET PG exam is to earn a PG degree, with MS being one of the most popular PG courses following MBBS. Your path to becoming a surgeon begins with this degree.

Developing both practical and theoretical skills is a requirement of medical college training. Students who are in their last years of medical school must work with patients in clinics and hospitals. Volunteering at community clinics or hospitals helps medical students stand out from their competition. A successful career as a surgeon will be paved by a residency program with a competent mentor in addition to the qualifications and skills for becoming a surgeon.

To get conceptual clarity in MBBS course subjects, access the best online video lectures.

Responsibilities after becoming a surgeon

The following duties often fall under the purview of surgeons:

  • Analyzing and evaluating a patient’s medical situation and medical history.
  • Engaging in conversation with the patient and addressing any worries they may have regarding their general health and well-being.
  • Prescribing the necessary tests and examinations to identify the underlying causes of the patient’s condition.
  • Examining and evaluating the test results to diagnose and determine any conclusions.
  • Communicating the patient’s most recent state and offering evidence to back up the most recent conclusions.
  • Creating and suggesting a remedy to address the issue or perform any surgery if required.
  • Following up, reviewing, and assisting patients in taking care of their health as needed to aid in their recovery.

Right Way to Approach Surgery

Some MS Specialisations

  • General surgery
  • Orthopaedics
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Injury medicine and surgery
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Neurosurgery
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Pediatric surgery

MCh degrees (MCh, or Master of Chirurgiae, is a Latin abbreviation for general surgery) with any specialization from an institution approved by the MCI are required for people who seek to advance their sub-specialization in any field, such as plastic surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, or urology. The MCh degree typically has a lot of research requirements. All candidates who pursue the MCh program must be full-time residents during the three-year training term. MCh can be done as a 5 years course after MBBS or 3 years after MS.

Job Roles

You can choose from several surgical specializations depending on your interests. Types of Surgeon’s Job Roles include:

Neurosurgeon: Covers all elements of brain surgery, including spinal surgery, skull base surgery, pediatric neurosurgery, and a variety of other neurological conditions.

Cardiothoracic Surgeon: Includes Congenital surgery, thoracic surgery, heart failure surgery, transplant surgery, oesophageal surgery, and cardiac surgery are all included in this. In this kind of surgery, conditions affecting the heart, oesophagus, chest, and lungs are treated.

Pediatric Surgeon: From the time a baby is born until they reach adolescence, these surgeons deal with pediatric surgical difficulties.

Orthopaedic Surgeon: Surgery performed on bones, joints, and soft tissues like ligaments, muscles, and nerves are done by orthopaedic surgery, which includes foot, ankle, and knee surgery, rheumatoid, and sports surgery, as well as fractures.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon: They perform the surgery on the face and neck. Correcting face deformities, managing facial damage, and basic surgery to complex head and neck surgeries are all included in the procedures.

Other subspecialties surround vascular, colorectal, breast, endocrine, upper and lower gastrointestinal, kidney, liver transplantation, and a lot more.

Top Surgical Recruiting Firms in India

In India, there are many reputed hospitals where working will feel like a dream:

  • Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, Delhi
  • Jaypee Hospital, Noida
  • Fortis Hospitals
  • Apollo Hospitals Group
  • Sri Ramakrishna Multi-Speciality Hospital
  • Narayana Health
  • Max Healthcare and Super Speciality Hospitals
Salary and PayScale of Surgeons

While surgeons in private institutions earn lakhs per month, those working in government hospitals are paid a set wage of 1 to 2.5 lakh. An entry-level surgeon makes about Rs. 9,71,000 annually. A general surgeon with experience can expect to make about Rs. 24,63,000, compared to a mid-career surgeon with 5 to 10 years of experience who can make about Rs. 11,71,000. The income varies depending on various factors, such as the number of surgeries performed, experience, type of surgeon, area of employment, and so on.

Possibilities for a Surgeon

The more accomplishments you have under your belt, the better. The use of technology to do operations with the aid of robots and other instruments will increase your worth and make you an asset to your organization, which is another area where surgeons may set themselves apart. Specialization is undoubtedly a key element that will elevate your status in society; nevertheless, be careful while selecting a speciality because each one requires time and money. Moving to a semi-urban location is another excellent strategy to boost your possibilities. Due to the rapid growth, one may anticipate the opening of new hospitals in these places to draw in more patients from nearby rural areas.

Future of Surgery

Both technology and surgical techniques have seen a significant change recently. The techniques and tools are being improved, which greatly lowers the risk for the patients. The use of robotic surgery and minimally invasive techniques is one direction we anticipate the future of surgery to take. The new techniques have been adopted by many hospitals, and they also hasten recovery times significantly. The doctors can now treat the patient with the aid of micro-cameras. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicines are two other developing areas of surgery. The medical professionals here use biomaterials to aid the patient’s recovery. An illustration would be the use of stem cells or scaffolds to assist a patient with an illness. The subject is still changing. The ability for people to develop organs from patient cells is soon to come.

The demands of this job can be physically and psychologically taxing. A surgeon’s position calls for in-depth medical expertise, as well as precision, devotion, and skill. A career as a surgeon is rewarding since it improves people’s quality of life. It is not an easy job to save a life, it requires lots and lots of hard work, sleepless nights, and years of practice. The average surgeon’s income is quite lucrative, which opens several intriguing career options. Surgeons typically have a lot of work on their plates, including monitoring patients, doing procedures, attending meetings, and completing paperwork. They occasionally might also have extra duties including mentoring junior physicians and conducting research.

To get access to the best online Surgery course for MBBS students, Click here.

Pathology is a branch of medical science that involves the study and examination of the origin and cause of diseases. It facilitates all aspects of patient consideration, from diagnostic testing and treatment advice to using cutting-edge genetic technologies and disease prevention. It is essential to the study of clinical medicine because it serves as a link between many academic disciplines and medicine. By studying Pathology in MBBS, medicos learn how to diagnose the disease or condition including the cause and degree of severity, track the development of the illness, examine the effectiveness of the therapy and manage the patient.

To know the right way to approach pathology in MBBS, Click here.

Why is pathology one of the best fields of study?

The basis for all clinical medicine, including patient care, diagnostic procedures, and treatment strategies, is pathology. To develop potential treatments for diseases, pathologists experiment with cutting-edge technology and carry out a variety of clinical procedures. They make every attempt to develop a more effective method of combating viruses, infections, and other serious health issues. Pathologists play a very crucial role in research, advancing medication, and devising new therapies to battle infections/viruses, contaminations, and infectious diseases.
Some of the fields of Pathology that students can opt for include:

Clinical Pathology A clinical pathologist is knowledgeable about the key components of laboratory medicine and various clinical branches. They typically have training in hematology, microbiology, chemical pathology, and many more. A clinical pathologist typically works in a rural town, community hospital, medium-sized medical practice, or other non-metropolitan centers.

• Forensic Pathology A forensic pathologist’s primary responsibilities include identifying the cause of death and reconstructing the events leading up to it. This is completed in a careful, meticulous manner. The performance of autopsy exams of the internal and external body organs and determining the cause of death is a significant aspect of the function.

• Anatomical Pathology- This area is concerned with disease tissue diagnosis. Anatomical pathologists need to have a thorough knowledge of the pathological and clinical aspects of various diseases.

• General Pathology- A general pathologist typically works in a big rural town, community hospital, medium-sized private practice, or another non-metropolitan setting. They undergo various diagnostic procedures, blood sampling procedures, and various laboratory tasks.

• Chemical Pathology – Another branch of pathology that addresses the full spectrum of disease is chemical pathology. It includes identifying changes in a broad range of chemicals (proteins, electrolytes, and enzymes) in blood and body fluids in connection with numerous disorders.

• Immuno Pathology – Similar to hematology, the discipline of immunology frequently combines clinical work with laboratory medicine (the testing of patient samples, interviewing, examining, and advising patients about clinical problems).

• Microbiology – Diseases due to infectious organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are the focus of microbiology.

 Digital Pathology:

It can speed up the delivery of more accurate diagnostic results while minimizing the impact of human error. The processes used in digital pathology allow it to complete routine tasks more quickly without compromising the quality of the work. Digital pathology is slowly gaining specific support for teaching, tissue-based research, medication development, and the global practice of human pathology throughout the world. Digital pathology is quickly gaining attention. It is an invention devoted to lowering laboratory costs, enhancing operational effectiveness, increasing productivity, and enhancing treatment choices and patient care.

Best way to learn Pathology in MBBS

 Refer to Dr. Harsh Mohan’s ‘Textbook of Pathology’
The book includes references as well as the most recent WHO classification of neoplasms and current diagnostic criteria for common diseases. It adheres to a straightforward, clear, replicable, and user-friendly format. Additionally, Prof. Ivan Damjanov generously contributed schematic, gross, and photomicrographs with higher quality and greater resolution to the book. To make it easier for beginners to recognise the structures in the images, each image is labelled. Each topic’s conclusion includes a distinctive eye-catching colour box that summarises the topic’s important themes in bullets for quick review. At the end of each chapter, the book also offers significant review questions (both long-answer types and short-notes on themes) to help the reader get ready and visualise what they will write for the exam.

 Enroll in Dr. Harsh Mohan’s Pathology For Undergrads online course
The course is aligned with Dr. Harsh Mohan’s ‘Textbook of Pathology’. The course focuses on the causes, and mechanisms of disease development (pathogenesis), morphologic changes in cell structure, and the effects of these changes (clinical manifestations). The course’s five key features are General Pathology, Hematology, Systemic Pathology, and Clinical Pathology, including Exfoliative Cytology, Body Fluids, and Cytology in Clinical Care. Pathology practicals include gross specimens that are significant from the perspective of an examination.

Check out Dr. Harsh Mohan’s online course – Pathology for UnderGrads

Pathology in MBBS is an exceptionally wide branch, where more than 19 kinds of specializations coexist. Depending upon their specializations, abilities, and interests, pathologists work either in research facilities, clinics, healthcare centers, or pathology centers. Frequently, they give advice and even decide the most ideal treatment in the event of complicated diseases. The pathological reports are a must for better diagnosis and treatment. The reports help specialists to examine the patient, diagnose diseases, and treat them accordingly. Pathologists utilize gross, microscopic, immunologic, genetic, and molecular modalities to determine the presence of disease and work closely with healthcare specialists, radiologists and researchers. They can sub-specialize in various disciples, like gastroenterology, gynecologic pathology, blood sicknesses, clotting disorder, microbiology, lung and breast cancers, and more.



  • Glaucoma (aka “Kala Motia” in Hindi) is also known as “Silent thief of Sight”, as patients suffering from advanced glaucoma gradually develop irreversible blindness and tunnel-like vision. Patients with advanced glaucoma are not even able to perform their daily routine tasks effectively.
  • Glaucoma is very characteristically known by the optic nerve changes and progressive damage to the optic nerve. The changes in the optic nerve results in the characteristic disc appearance and corresponding changes in the visual field.
  • The cause for maximum cases is unknown and therefore, primary glaucoma is either idiopathic or has some genetic cases which are yet not precisely known.
  • Raised Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is not a part of the definition of glaucoma, as it is just a risk factor.

Broad Classification

Basic Toolkit for Glaucoma

  • Classification helps to plan a treatment strategy

Key players of diagnosis

For the precise diagnosis, there are five things to keep in mind:


Elaborating the above-mentioned key players in detail:

  1. Intraocular pressure

Normal IOP:

  • According to the studies, normal IOP has a very wide range but for practical purposes, Mean IOP (GAT): 15±3 mmHg (Range 12-18) is considered.
  • The “magic number of 21” is a figure of the past, an obsolete concept.
  • In a graphical representation, Normal distribution with a slight skew towards higher values is seen.
  • Remember many factors, in addition to glaucoma, influence IOP and can be divided into 2 categories (i) those that exert a long-term influence (e.g., genetics, age, gender, refractive error, and race), and (ii) those that cause short-term fluctuations in the pressure (e.g., time of day, body position, exertion, lid, and eye movement, various ocular and systemic conditions, general anesthesia, and some food and drugs).

Diurnal variation of IOP:

  • IOP doesn’t remain the same throughout the day.
  • IOP value is generally higher in the morning than in the afternoon; normal fluctuation is about 2-5 mm Hg in a day.
  • If the fluctuation is not in the normal range within a day, then this IOP damages the optic nerve over a prolonged period.

Applanation Tonometry:

  • Clinically, Goldmann Applanation Tonometer (GAT), a gold standard tonometer is used to measure the IOP. This is one of the most reliable ways of measuring the IOP.

GAT is mounted on a slit lamp and the patient sits on the other side. In the biprism of the applanation tonometer, the doctor can see two green mires under a cobalt blue filter and the endpoint of the pressure is reached when the inner margins of these superior and inferior hemispheres touch each other.

NOTE: Never start treating the patient based on one reading of IOP. Make sure to take 2-3 different readings at different periods on different days to ensure the most reliable reading of IOP.

IOP Paradox:

“Everything within 12-18 mm Hg range is not normal and everything beyond 18 mm Hg is not abnormal”.

There are two paradoxical conditions:

  • Paradox 1: When there is GON, i.e., Glaucomatous optic nerve damage but the IOP < 21 mmHg, there is damage to the nerve and visual fields. This entity is called Normal/ Low Tension Glaucoma (NTG/LTG).
  • Paradox 2: When the IOP value is > 21 mmHg and there is no optic nerve damage and the visual fields are perfectly fine, this entity is known as Ocular Hypertension (OHT; Normal variant).


  • Remember, Refrain from using the word “Normal” in the clinical case scenarios because a range that is normal for one may not be normal for the other.
  • If baseline IOP is > 30 mmHg, it is reconfirmed once and the patient should be started on therapy without the need for performing a diurnal IOP recording.

Central Corneal Thickness (CCT):

  • It is measured by an instrument named Pachymeter.
  • Normal corneal thickness is around 520-550 microns.
  • It is an independent predictor of Glaucoma.
  • Goldmann applanation tonometer calibrated for CCT of 520 mm: a thinner CCT underestimates true IOP, and thicker CCT overestimates.
  • A very thin or very thick cornea can impact the decision-making process regarding the need to treat, or the aggressiveness of the therapy.
  1. Optic Disc/ Optic Nerve Head: Normal Vs. Glaucoma

In the optic disc, the central part which is paler than the peripheral part is called the cup, and the reddish-orange part over the cup is called the neuro-retinal rim (NRR)and the entire neural tissue lies here.

There are a few things we need to consider, for the cup is to disc ratio measurement mentioned below:

  • We can consider Optic disc as a ‘Donut’. The central part is empty, i.e., non-neural tissue but the peripheral part has neural tissue (NRR), and we should focus on the health of NRR.
  • Cup: Disc Ratio: The central part is the cup and the blood vessel are coming and bending out on the neural rim. It is referred to as Cup Diameter/ Disc Diameter.
  • Colour Cup: We must not interpret cupping by just looking at the color of the cup.
  • Contour Cup: The important point to consider is the bend of the blood vessels coming out of the blood. It tells the exact margin of the cup.
  • Correlate with the disc size: Usually, large discs have large cups and this cupping is physiological. However, a small disc with even a small cup must be examined with caution as it is more prone to develop glaucoma because the nerve fibres are tightly packed. Glaucomatous eyes with small discs may have pseudonormal cups.
  • High interindividual variability: There is an immense amount of variability in individuals of the same race and in different races.
  • ISNT Rule:
  • It is the health of the neural rim that accounts for the health of the optic nerve.
  • As a rule, the inferior neural rim of the optic disc is the thickest followed by the superior rim followed by the nasal rim, and the temporal rim is the thinnest. This is called the ISNT Rule.
  • Nearly 80% of healthy optic nerves follow the ISNT rule. 20% of normal individuals can have different thicknesses of the rims but with all the other tests, we can rule out glaucoma in those individuals.
  • In advanced cases of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, there occurs concentric NRR loss.

Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy (GON):

  • Glaucoma is a disease that begins with asymmetry. Initially, the cupping in one eye is different from the other eye. When the asymmetry of the cup: disc ratio between the two eyes is more than 0.2, a person is labelled as Glaucoma Suspect.

Characteristics features of GON include:

  • Generalized or focalized increase in the optic cup size and the cup: disc ratio
  • Vertical enlargement of the optic cup (especially at the superior and inferior poles)
  • Asymmetric cupping (0.2 cup-disc ratio difference) between the two eyes
  • Narrowing or notching of the neural rim
  • Splinter/ Drance hemorrhages
  • Changes in vessel configuration and caliber
  • Increased visibility of the lamina cribrosa pores

Accurate documentation with an optic disc drawing at baseline is important and can be supplemented with stereo-optic disc photography. Changes in disc findings are more sensitive indicators of the presence and progression of the disease

  1. Gonioscopy
  • To classify the anterior angle chambers into Open Angle Glaucoma and Closed Angle Glaucoma, a lens called a Gonioscope to view the angles.
  • Why can’t we see the anterior chamber angle with the slit lamp or direct observation?

There is a small protrusion of the scleral tissue which projects anteriorly to the angle just like the watch glass fitted into the rim of a wristwatch. Similarly, because of the projection of scleral tissue, the cornea is fitted like a watch glass. There is a total internal reflection at the cornea-air interface and the light rays do not get out to reach our eyes. So, the curvature of the cornea creates internal reflection and therefore we need an additional lens called a Goniolens.

  • What does a Goniolens do?

Gonio lens permits the visualization of the angle by eliminating the cornea as a refracting surface by placing a concave surface against the cornea.

So, these different glasses allow visualization of the angles using obliquely inclined mirrors.

    • What if the angles are closed?
    • Once angle closure is diagnosed, categorize the stage of angle closure
    • Find out the whether the angle closure is appositional or synechial. If the goniolens. is pressed in the centre of the cornea, the aqueous from the centre is displaced towards the angle and open it up artificially. This means that the angle closure is appositional. But if there were adhesions between the iris and the cornea or the lens, there are synechia, then whatever amount of displacement of aqueous is there, it will not open the angles and this is called Synechial angle closure.
  • When to do gonioscopy?

All Glaucoma patients need to undergo:

      • Initial examination
      • Repeat every 1-2 years as the human body is dynamic and with age, health conditions keep on changing
  • What is seen through the Goniolens?
    • Schwalbe’s line (SL)
    • Trabecular meshwork (TM)
    • Scleral spur (SS)
    • Ciliary body band (CBB)

In Secondary Glaucoma,

  • Pigmentary Glaucoma: Mascara line is seen which has a lot of pigments.
  • Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma: Sampolesi’s Line
  • Angle recession: Seen in the case of trauma
  • NVG: Abnormal blood vessels as seen in the Neovascular Glaucoma.
  1. Visual field
  • Visual field testing is known as Perimetry.
  • Up to 37% of optic nerve fibers need to be lost before a VFD is found on automated perimetry, usually progressing from mid-peripheral or paracentral VFD in the earlier stages, to loss of central fixation points and temporal visual field loss in advanced
  • Standard automated full-threshold static perimetry is preferred; use the same test strategy for comparison.
  • Glaucoma visual field defect respects the horizontal meridian. Defects respecting vertical meridian, are likely due to neurophthalmic problems.
  • Reliable tests are crucial and influenced by learning, patient comprehension and cooperation, artifacts, and other ocular pathology.
  • Characteristic traits of glaucomatous visual field defects:
  • Asymmetrical along the horizontal midline
  • Located in the mid periphery(5-25° of fixation)
  • Reproducible
  • Not attributable to any other pathology
  • Localized
  • Correlating with the appearance of optic disc
  • Whenever there is thinning of the inferior neuro-retinal rim, there will be superior optic nerve defect and vice versa.
  • After analyzing the structural changes, match them with the corresponding functional defects.
  1. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis: RNFL thinning detected with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful to diagnose early glaucoma. Use in conjunction with the other parameters.
  1. Risk Factors
  • Elevated IOP
  • Myopia
  • Optic nerve changes
  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Increasing age
  • Race
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cardiovascular disease


The main goals of treatment are:

  • To preserve visual function with stable optic nerve and visual field status in the patient’s lifetime, by controlling IOP within the target range and addressing other risk factors, and
  • To maintain quality of life.

IOP lowering by medication, laser, or surgery is the mainstay of treatment to prevent glaucoma development and retard progression.

(Detailed discussion in a subsequent blog)

Putting it all together!!

  • Does this patient have glaucoma?
  • If not, how high is the risk of developing glaucoma?
  • What other tests need to be done?
  • When do you see this patient back?
  • When/How do you start treatment?
  • What is the prognosis for this patient?

‘Basic Toolkit for Glaucoma’ by Dr. Parul Ichhpujani

To get conceptual clarity in Ophthalmology online, subscribe to CBME & NEET-oriented Ophthalmology for UnderGrads course.

Dr. Parul Ichhpujani


Professor at Glaucoma Services

Department of Ophthalmology, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India

Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore is a private medical college, hospital, and research institute. CMC is one of the best private medical colleges in India. In and around Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, this institute has a network of primary, secondary, and tertiary care hospitals. Dr. Ida Scudder is the founder of CMC Vellore. The college is affiliated with the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai. CMC, Vellore is approved by NMC (National Medical Commission). It is ranked as one of the top medical colleges in India. The institution offers admission to various disciplines of sciences: medical science, nursing, allied health sciences, some other master’s and doctoral programs, and post-graduate engineering programs.

The college offers admission to various programs including:

  • Undergraduate medical course (MBBS)
  • Medical postgraduate courses (diploma, degree, and higher speciality courses)
  • Certification courses
  • Postdoctoral fellowship courses
  • Distance education program
  • Undergraduate nursing program
  • Nursing postgraduate courses (diploma, degree, and fellowships)
  • Allied health sciences degree courses
  • MBA in hospital and health systems management (HHSM)
  • MS Bioengineering
  • Tech. Clinical Engineering
  • D. Medical Sciences

MBBS in CMC Vellore

MBBS is a four-and-a-half-year course followed by one year compulsory rotating residential internship. In CMC, Vellore, the MBBS course comes under the group A category. As per the CBME curriculum, the undergraduate course in medicine comprises three phases.

Three phases in MBBS Curriculum

Phases in MBBS Curriculum Duration Subjects Included
1 (Pre-Clinical Phase) 13 months Basic Sciences, Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Introduction to Community Medicine, Humanities, and Professional Development
2 (Para-Clinical Phase) 12 months Pharmacology, Pathology, and Microbiology
3 (Clinical Phase) Part 1: 13 months

Part 2: 13 months

Forensic Medicine, Community Medicine, Ophthalmology, and Otorhinolaryngology.

Medicine and Allied Specialties, Surgery & Allied Specialties, Child Health, and Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Block postings and Internship at CMC Vellore

As per the guidelines of the National Medical Commission,

  • Along with regular classes, medical students also have to undergo block postings after phase 1 of their MBBS course at community health centers, mission hospitals, and secondary care centers.
  • A medical student also has to compulsorily complete the rotational internship for 12 months. They are posted in the discipline of community health, medicine, surgery, obstetrics & gynecology, orthopaedics, emergency medicine, and short elective subjects.
  • At CMC, Vellore, the students are allocated community health centers, mission hospitals, and secondary care centers for internships.

Admission procedure

Admission to the MBBS undergraduate course in CMC, Vellore solely depends on the NEET-UG score. An aspirant to get admission at CMC needs to qualify and crack the NEET-UG (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) examination with a good score.

Eligibility to get admission at Christian Medical College

  1. Candidate must have completed 10+2 higher secondary schooling or equivalent examination, and the last two years of education must include Physics, Chemistry, and Biology/Biotechnology as major subjects with English from the Tamil Nadu State board or any other equivalent examination board.
  2. Candidates must have attained a minimum of 50% marks in all the subjects, Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Biotechnology, and English individually for the general category, and a minimum of 40% aggregate for BC, MBC, SC/ST candidates is required in a single attempt. The criteria mentioned are subject to change as per the state & university guidelines.
  3. At the time of admission, a candidate must have completed 17 years of age or should complete the mentioned on or before 31st December of the said year.

NEET-UG Exam Pattern for admission to MBBS at CMC Vellore

The NEET-UG exam is conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) once a year. The following are some important points to keep in mind:

Particulars Description
Exam Mode Offline (pen & paper based)
Type of Examination Multiple choice questions
The total number of questions 200 questions (180 MCQs must be answered)
NEET total marks 720 marks
Marking scheme +4 for each correct answer and -1 for every incorrect answer
Total duration 3hrs 20 mins
Languages The exam is conducted in 13 different languages, namely, English, Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, and Punjabi

NEET Exam Section-wise Distribution:

In all 4 Subject sections, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Zoology, there are two sections, section A comprises 35 questions and section B comprises 15 questions out of which 10 are to be answered. Each question carries 4 marks.

Number of Seats for 2022-2023 at CMC, Vellore

The total number of MBBS candidate seats is 100 and the seat distribution is as follows:

  1. All India open category: 16 seats
    a. One candidate is selected by Govt. of India under the ‘Central Pool Scheme’.
    b. 20% i.e., 3 seats are reserved for the SC/ST candidates.
  2. Minority Network Category & CMC, Vellore staff quota: 84 Seats

Steps to get admission into CMC Vellore

  1. Fill out the application form for an undergraduate course from the CMC, Vellore official site.
  2. Provide your NEET application form details.
  3. Submission of the receipts of the certification forms from Minority Network Organizations (if applicable).
  4. Apply to the Tamil Nadu Selection Committee for the counseling process in the relevant category.
  5. The selection is based on the NEET-UG score and candidates are required to fill the NEET-UG score and rank on the CMC, Vellore admission site.
  6. Submission of the Arno & rank of TN Management Quota.
  7. Be updated with the release of the merit list.
  8. Counseling by Tamil Nadu Selection Committee, DME, Chennai.

All these steps are to be done in the stipulated period as provided by the college. So, be updated.

Admission Process after Counseling at CMC, Vellore

  • After the counseling procedure, the candidate is required to register for the course by paying the tuition fees and completing other formalities, and submitting original certificates.
  • The admission confirmation is approved by Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University. Until the approval, admission continues to be provisional.
  • After the confirmation of the MBBS admission at CMC, Vellore, a candidate needs to submit their original required documents at the university campus.
  • All the candidates getting admission to CMC, Vellore need to undergo a medical fitness check-up and the admission gets confirmed only after the medical fitness clearance by the Medical Board, CMC, Vellore.

MBBS Course Fee at CMC, Vellore

The fees to be paid at the time of registration for admissions to the MBBS course at CMC, Vellore is mentioned in the table below:

Particulars Fees (in rupees)
Tuition fees 3,000
One-time College fee at Admission 10,300
Other Annual Fee 25,105
One-time payment to the University 14,425
Total 52,830

*The course fee may change in the coming years depending upon the University rules and regulations.

MBBS Cut-off at CMC, Vellore

Based upon the analysis of the previous years’ cut-offs, the estimated NEET-UG cut-off marks for the MBBS course for admission at CMC, Vellore are mentioned below:

Category Estimated Cut off Score
General 600
Minority 380
Institutional/Staff 500
SC/ST 520

To get the conceptual clarity on the MBBS courses online, click here.

Medical Postgraduate Courses at CMC, Vellore

In CMC, Vellore Admission to PG Degree, Diploma, PG diploma courses, and fellowship courses come under the Group B category. Admission to the MD/MS courses is done based on the NEET-PG score. All the students need to get into the NEET-PG merit list for admission to the PG courses with the required cut-off score.

PG Courses and Number of Seats

The Christian Medical College offers admission to various post-graduate specialization courses.

  1. The CMC Vellore provides admission to MD courses for various subjects along with the number of seats mentioned below:
MD Specialization Courses Number of Seats
Anaesthesiology 33
Anatomy 4
Biochemistry 2
Community Medicine 6
Dermatology Venerol & Lep. 5
Emergency Medicine 3
Family Medicine 2
Geriatrics 3
General Medicine 16
Microbiology 4
Nuclear Medicine 2
Pediatrics 20
Pathology 8
Pharmacology 2
Physiology 4
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 4
Psychiatry 12
Radiodiagnosis 12
Radiation Oncology 8
Respiratory Medicine 4
Transfusion Medicine 3
  1. The CMC Vellore provides admission to MS courses for various subjects along with the number of seats mentioned below:
MS specialization Courses Number of Seats
Otorhinolaryngology 8
General Surgery 10
Obstetrics & Gynecology 17
Ophthalmology 9
Orthopaedics 12

Service Obligation at CMC, Vellore

  1. The service obligation of 3 years is mandated for all the MS/MD candidates, except for the clinical specialties (General merit category).
  2. Candidates admitted to the clinical specialties under the general merit category have a service obligation of 1 year.
  3. Candidates admitted to the pre-and para-clinical specialties under the general merit category, have no service obligation.
  4. For diploma courses, the service obligation period is a minimum of 2 years whereas, general merit candidates are exempted from the same.
  5. After the course completion, the service obligation is served at the CMC, Vellore or any of the associated mission hospitals.

Facilities available for the medical PG trainees

  • Stipend
  • Accommodation
  • Research activity of each department
  • Medical records department
  • Recreation
  • Staff/student health clinic

Fee Structure for the Postgraduate Medical Courses at CMC, Vellore

The fees to be paid at the time of registration for admissions to the Medical PG courses (MD/MS) at CMC are mentioned in the table below:

Particulars 2 yr Post Diploma  Degree (in rupees) 3 yr PG Degree (in rupees)
Tuition fees 800 1200
One-time admission fees 1200 30,000
University fees 1,35,610 1,35,610
Others 17,600 19,600
Total 1,74,010 1,86,410

*The course fee may change in the coming years depending upon the University rules and regulations.

NEET-PG Cut-off Score for MS/MD admission to CMC, Vellore

Based upon the analysis of the previous years’ cut-offs, the estimated cut-off marks for the medical PG specialization courses for admission at CMC, Vellore are mentioned below:

Specialization Estimated Cut-off Score
Anesthesiology 400
Anatomy 460
Biochemistry 430
Community Medicine 500
Dip. In Clinical Pathology 480
Dermatology Venerol & Lep. 540
Emergency Medicine 500
Family Medicine 450
Geriatrics 380
General Surgery 460
General Medicine 590
Microbiology 450
Neurosurgery 500
Nuclear Medicine 500
Obstetrics & Gynecology 380
Ophthalmology 400
Orthopedics 450
Pediatrics 440
Pathology 450
Pharmacology 600
Physiology 480
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 450
Psychiatry 360
Radiodiagnosis 450
Radiation Oncology 450
Respiratory Medicine 490
Transfusion Medicine 600

Certificate courses after MBBS

The certificate courses offered by the CMC Vellore for the MBBS graduates are mentioned below:

Course Name Duration Number of Seats
Accident & Emergency Medicine 2 years 10
Neonatology 1 year 1
Palliative Medicine 1 year 2
Acute Care Pediatrics 1 year 1
  • CMC, Vellore also provides admission to various higher specialty and Postdoctoral diploma courses and allied health sciences courses.
  • After completing MBBS, a medico can also pursue M.Sc. Epidemiology and Master of Public Health Administration.

CMC, Vellore Hostel Fees and Facility

  • Hostel Facility for MBBS Students: MBBS students live in the campus hostels. The Bagayam campus of the CMC, Vellore has girls’ and boys’ hostels. The girls’ hostel is named as ‘Paradise on Earth’, while the boys’ hostel is named as ‘Mansion of the Gods’. Boys are required to submit the hostel charges (Deposits and advance) of10,000/- and girls Rs.8,000/-. The approximate living expenses per month for the hostel are Rs.6,000/- for boys and girls. 
  • Hostel facility for other courses: The women’s hostel and men’s hostel for the students of allied health courses are named as the ‘Fitch Hostel’ and the ‘Dorothy Joske Hostel’. The ‘Modale International Hostel’ is allocated for the elective course students/visitor observer students from overseas. The hostel and its charges vary as per the student’s course.

All the hostels are well equipped with all the necessities of a student and other facilities such as a Hostel Chapel, recreation room, gymnasium, library, dance room, music room, prayer room, mini kitchen, TV/Projector room. The food facility with vegetarian and non-vegetarian food is also available for all the residents.

How does DigiNerve help a medico?

DigiNerve is an EdTech initiative by Jaypee Brothers, a pioneer and market leader in health science publishing with a legacy spanning over 5 decades. It provides top-notch medical content to enhance conceptual clarity, clinical skills, and ace exams.

In terms of the calibre of the courses, the variety of subjects, the Gold Standard faculty, and the user-friendly interface, DigiNerve is unmatched.

  • DigiNerve provides best online courses for MBBS subjects designed by eminent faculty as per CBME Curriculum and NEET Exam, such as
MBBS Online Courses Course Faculty
Community Medicine for UnderGrads Dr. Bratati Banerjee
Forensics Medicine and Toxicology for UnderGrads Dr. Gautam Biswas
Medicine for UnderGrads Dr. Archith Boloor
Microbiology for UnderGrads Dr. Apurba S Sastry, Dr. Sandhya Bhat, Dr. Deepashree R
OBGYN for UnderGrads Dr. K Srinivas
Ophthalmology for UnderGrads Dr. Parul Ichhpujani, Dr. Talvir Sidhu
Orthopaedics for UnderGrads Dr. Vivek Pandey
Pathology for UnderGrads Prof. Harsh Mohan, Prof. Ramadas Nayak, Dr. Debasis Gochhait
Pediatrics for UnderGrads Dr. Santoah T Soans, Dr. Soundarya Mahalingam
Pharmacology for UnderGrads Dr Sandeep Kaushal, Dr. Nirmal George
Surgery for UnderGrads Dr. Sriram Bhat M
  • Apart from the MBBS and MD courses, DigiNerve brings the professional courses ‘Ultrasound in OBGYN Made Easy’ and ‘Basics of Infertility and IUI Made Easy’ by the top faculty Dr. Chaitanya Nagori and Dr. Sonal Panchal. After completion of the course, the candidates will earn a course completion certificate from Ian Donald Inter-University School of Medical Ultrasound.
  • An Exam preparation course ‘Cracking MRCP Part 1’ by Dr. Gurpreet Singh Wander and Dr. Archith Boloor, helps a medico with their preparation to crack the MRCP exam. Cracking MRCP Part 1 course is based on the curriculum devised by The Royal College of Physicians (RCP). The course has 15 online modules covering major specialties such as Clinical SciencesCardiologyGastroenterology, etc. The course includes video lectures, e-chapters, 2500+ BOF questions, mock exams, and most of all high-quality notes.


  1. How many marks are required in NEET for MBBS in CMC Vellore?

Ans: The estimated cut off score for admission to CMC, Vellore is around 600+ in the NEET Examination for general category. For the OBC/SC/ST & Minority groups, the estimated cut-off score is around 500 marks. For sponsored & management quota students, the cut-off range is comparatively lower.

  1. Is CMC Vellore a deemed university?

Ans: No, CMC Vellore is not a deemed University. It is a private college, affiliated with Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai run by the Christian community.

  1. Is CMC good for MBBS?

Ans: CMC Vellore is ranked 3rd as per NIRF ranking 2022 after AIIMS, Delhi, and PGIMER, Chandigarh. It is one of the best medical colleges in India.

Gynecology and obstetrics both focus on the female reproductive system. Gynecology deals with non-pregnant women whereas Obstetrics deals with pregnancy and the procedures and issues that go along with it, thus obstetrics deals with both the mother and the infant. To lower the risk of newborn disease and mortality, obstetricians closely collaborate with pediatricians and neonatologists on newborn care. They also remove cancers, fibroids, etc, surgically, although many gynecological problems require hormonal and other pharmacological therapy too.

What an obstetrician does:

The duties obstetricians carry out consist of:

  • Obstetricians are in charge of collaborating with midwives to monitor and support a woman’s natural birth while she is in labor.
  • One of their roles is to execute an episiotomy, which entails making precise cuts over the pregnant woman’s perineum to widen the birth canal.
  • In some cases, assistance may be required to hasten protracted delivery to lessen maternal exhaustion and infant suffering (rising heart rate and possible brain damage to the baby). This makes use of methods like vacuum-assisted birth and forceps delivery.
  • Caesarean (or C) section, calls for the baby to be surgically removed from the mother’s womb to lessen difficulties during labor. If a C-section is not used to hurry the delivery, difficulties could ultimately result in the baby’s death or physical harm.
  • Therapy and diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. When the fertilized ovum is implanted somewhere other than the womb, it results in an ectopic pregnancy. It frequently ends up in the fallopian tubes.

What a gynecologist does: 

Gynecologists employ a variety of diagnostic and curative techniques. The following are a few of the common gynecological procedures:

  • Hysterectomy or uterus removal
  • Removing ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes are removed during surgery
  • Hysteroscopy and colposcopy involve employing tools like endoscopes to inspect the uterus’ inside.
  • Taking care of uterine fibroids
  • Identifying and treating sexually transmitted diseases
  • Diagnosing menstrual issues, such as absence, severe bleeding, irregular or no periods, etc.
  • Examination of the reproductive organs with ultrasound.

Objectives of Learning OBGYN

The Obstetrics and Gynecology Department offers modern, comprehensive screening and therapeutic techniques in a sympathetic environment for women in all stages of life.

In addition to regular gynecology procedures and medical treatments, a dedicated team provides cutting-edge motherhood facilities for routine and high-risk pregnancies, post-delivery and family planning services, sterility screening and handling, and all endoscopic gynecological operations.

Moreover, the department addresses high-risk pregnancies using prenatal diagnostic tests such as infant color doppler, amniocentesis, and velocimetry investigations. It also includes colposcopy, pap smear, and HPV-CO testing for going through menopausal women for cancer screening.

Aspirants can get a variety of profitable jobs in India and overseas by enrolling in this course. You can pursue additional education, such as research studies at prestigious universities and research institutions. Medical specialties like gynecology, cancer, critical care, reproductive endocrinology, or maternal-fetal medicine are all open to you as a career option. In India, postgraduate training in obstetrics and gynecology is either a three-year master’s program or a two-year diploma program. You can pursue a sub-specialty training program in fellowships after finishing your residency training.


In their fourth year of MBBS, undergraduate students who are studying OBGYN participate in case discussions in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. A medico must also do a one-month OBGYN internship in addition to this. They receive instruction in the labor room, family planning OPD and OT, and obstetrics and gynecology OPD’s wards and OTs throughout their internship.


A three-year, full-time postgraduate programme in OBGYN aims at training students to provide care to each patient, both pregnant and non-pregnant, as well as a thorough superior assessment of the entire medical pathology associated with the female reproductive organs.

Students learn about the most recent society standards, benchmark studies, breakthroughs in PCOS, robotic surgery, and conducting clinical examinations in OBGYN MD course. In the specialty clinics, OPD, wards, labour rooms, and operating rooms, they perform the necessary tests, interpret the results, and carry out medical/surgical management. They are taught to assess pregnancy-related issues using medical skills, find solutions, and provide pertinent prognoses.

Watch this video to learn the right way to approach OBGYN MD

Ph.D. Scholars of OBGYN

Every Ph.D. candidate has the privilege of choosing their specialty area from a list that includes fetal development and growth, hereditary and genomics, gestational diabetes, parental hepatitis, preeclampsia, prenatal analysis, and screening. Additionally, topics like urogynecology, endometriosis, endometrium, and establishment, prenatal cancer, and genital level are also discussed.

List of Top 10 Colleges for OBGYN in India

Here is the most recent list of top obstetrics and gynecology colleges in India that have earned official NMC recognition. These universities have the highest rankings and are even regarded as the most reputable universities in India

S.No. Name of College Affiliation
1 Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi Delhi University
2 Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore Manipal Academy of Higher Education (Deemed University), Manipal
3 Jawaharlal Institute Of Postgraduate Medical Education And Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry Pondicherry University
4 Christian Medical College, Vellore The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai
5 Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
6 Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Manipal Academy of Higher Education (Deemed University), Manipal
7 Christian Medical College, Ludhiana Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot
8 Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education & Research (Deemed to be University), Chennai
9 SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kancheepuram SRM Institute of Science & Technology, Chennai
10 Dr. DY Patil Medical College Pune Dr. D Y Patil University (Deemed), Pimpri, Pune


Top OBGYN course online for best guidance for NEET Exam preparation

Why you should think about becoming an OBGYN?

There is a great opportunity in the medical sector, particularly for OBGYNs, as the need for healthcare professionals is on the rise. Below are a few reasons why you should consider pursuing a career in OBGYN.

  • Rising demand for OBGYNs

The need for female OB/GYNs has grown dramatically over the past few years, despite the perception that the health care industry is dominated by men. Today, more women than ever before are asking to consult a female specialist. Talking to other women comes more easily to women, especially when discussing sexual or pregnancy difficulties. Additionally, since more than 70% of residents are now women, supply and demand favor female OBGYNs.

  • Great Earnings

The field of Obstetrics and Gynecology holds a bright future and is one of the most prestigious. Gynecology is currently one of the most lucrative medical professions. It is possible to work in government organizations, clinics, private practices, and universities, as well as in the most prestigious hospitals in India. Additionally, the candidate could open a surgical clinic. Obstetrician/Gynecologist salary in India ranges from ₹10 Lakhs to ₹ 36 Lakhs. Salary estimates are based on 199 salaries received from Gynecologists, particularly from a large hospital network.

  • Fulfillment at work

One of the reasons people have named OBGYN as the most fulfilling profession in the healthcare industry is because bringing new life into this world is indeed a great sight to behold. As an OBGYN, you’ll have the opportunity to be regularly involved in childbirth and assist new mothers in making decisions that will impact the health of the infant.Only a few OBGYNs specialize in high-risk pregnancies. Patients with preterm births, a history of miscarriages, or antenatal problems that could complicate childbirth are cared for by these specialists. You’ll also have the ability as an OBGYN to advance the industry by developing novel techniques and procedures that may one day be considered best practices.

  • Jobs & Career
You should gain as much practical experience as you can if you want to work in the OBGYN field. In recent years, the demand for competent workers has increased. You can work in government and private hospitals, nursing homes, health care facilities, pharmaceutical firms, universities, and many other locations after completing the course. The program is unquestionably well-regarded, career-focused, and rewarding. This opens up opportunities for a wide range of careers, including those in critical care medicine, reproductive endocrinology, gynecologic oncology, female pelvic medicine, professorships, clinical associateships, junior consultants, senior residents, consultants, general practitioners, researchers, private practitioners, government doctors, and private clinicians. The OBGYN can also pursue research and further education at universities and research institutes.
  • Salary
When compared to the commercial sector, the government sector offers attractive wage packages in this field. Gynecologists typically earn up to 5 lacs per year when they begin their careers. Depending on expertise, a gynecologist with experience could make up to Rs. 25 to Rs. 36 Lacs annually. In a government hospital, salaries are determined by the average salary and grade set by the government. Those who run their clinic can make far more money than they anticipated depending on their background, reputation, and level of success.
To get conceptual clarity in OBGYN for UnderGrads course in MBBS, Click here.

Pharmacology is the study of the interaction of drugs with biological systems. This includes research on the chemical makeup, biological processes, physiological and behavioral impacts, mechanisms of action, and both therapeutic and non-therapeutic applications of pharmaceuticals.

Pharmacology is broadly categorized into two terms:

Pharma Terms



The term ‘Pharmacokinetics’ is derived from ancient Greek words, pharmakon meaning ‘drug’ and kinetikos meaning ‘moving’ or put in motion. Pharmacokinetics is a journey of a drug through the body, and in this, a drug passes through four different phases- Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion, which are called ADME properties.

The selection and modification of drug-dose schedules are aided by pharmacokinetic parameters.

Let’s discuss the pharmacokinetic parameters:


Absorption is the movement of a drug to the site of action from the site of administration. Various factors affect the extent and rate of absorption of the drug, such as routes of drug administration, dosage form, physiochemical properties of the drug,  bioavailability, pharmacogenetic factors, etc.

First Pass Metabolism: It is a phenomenon in which a drug is metabolized or transformed at a specific site before the drug reaches its site of action or systemic circulation, resulting in a lower concentration of the active substance. Examples of the drugs that undergo this phenomenon in the liver are propranolol, lidocaine, and clomethiazole; in the gut wall are sex hormones.

In the case of intravenous or intra-arterial administration, the drug bypasses the first pass metabolism and enters the circulation directly.

Watch this free video of one of the best online pharmacology courses in MBBS

Drug distribution is the process by which a drug travels from the administered site after absorption via the blood vessel walls to the sites of action.

The drug is distributed via various body fluid compartments, such as plasma, interstitial fluid compartments, and trans-cellular compartments.

Factors affecting the distribution rate of the drug:

  • Protein binding of drug
  • Plasma concentration of drug (Cp)
  • Clearance
  • Physiological barriers to distribution
  • Drug affinity of drugs to certain tissues


Drug metabolism, also known as biotransformation, is the process by which the body metabolizes drug molecules. The principal site of drug metabolism is the liver.

Enzymes responsible for drug metabolism are classified into two categories:

  • Microsomal enzymes: They are present in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the liver, kidney, and GIT. Example: cytochrome P450.
  • Non-microsomal enzymes: They are present in the cytoplasm, and mitochondria of different organs. Examples: esterase, amidase, and hydrolase.

Two Phases of Metabolism: Phase I metabolism converts a parent drug to polar active metabolites, via., oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis reactions, while phase II metabolism converts a parent drug to polar inactive metabolites including conjugation reactions.

Watch this video of Pharmacology for UnderGrads and gain an in-depth understanding of Pharmacology in MBBS.

Drug excretion refers to the removal of drugs in unchanged or modified form out of the body.

The major route of excretion:

  1. Renal excretion: It involves three major physiological processes, namely, glomerular filtration, active tubular secretion, and passive tubular reabsorption.
  2. Hepatobiliary excretion: The drug with a molecular weight of more than 300 Da and polar drugs are excreted in the bile.
  3. Gastrointestinal excretion: After the oral administration of a drug, a part of it is not absorbed and excreted in the feces.
  4. Pulmonary excretion: Volatile drugs, such as gaseous anesthetics, are excreted via the lungs into expired air.

Saliva, sweat, tears, breast milk, vaginal fluid, nails, and hair are considered the minor routes of drug excretion.


  1. Half-life: It is the time taken for the drug concentration in blood or plasma to reduce to half of the original amount, i.e. the amount of the drug in the body is reduced by 50%. A drug’s half-life varies from patient to patient because of a variety of patient and drug-specific factors.

The formula for the half-life is t½ = 0.693 × Vd /CL where,

Vd is the volume of distribution and CL is a clearance factor.

2. Order of Kinetics: For many medications, the most typical is First order kinetics, meaning that a fixed proportion of the drug is eliminated from the body at regular intervals of time. Only a few medications, like ethanol and phenytoin, undergo zero order kinetics wherein, a fixed quantity of the medicine is eliminated after each period.

3. Clearance of a Drug: It is the volume of plasma cleared or removed out of the drug by hepatic and/or renal excretion, among other organs.

Clearance =    Rate of Elimination

Plasma drug concentration

And, Total clearance is calculated by Clt = Clh + Clr + Clothers where,

Clt = Total clearance

Clh = Hepatic clearance

Clr = Renal clearance

Clother = Clearance from all other routes

4. Steady-state plasma concentration: When a drug dose is administered regularly over a certain time, a steady state is reached. It is a point where the amount of medication absorbed and the amount removed from the body is in equilibrium. For instance, a medication that has a half-life of 6 hours will likely reach a steady state after being administered for more than 24 hours (More than 4 half-life).

To access online pharmacokinetics lecture notes, download the DigiNerve app.

Dr. Sandeep Kaushal


Dean Academics, Professor, and Head,

Department of Pharmacology,

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital,

Ludhiana, Punjab

Pharmacology is the scientific study of the effects of drugs on living organisms. A drug is any chemical substance, natural or synthetic, that affects a biological system. Pharmacology may include studying how organisms process drugs, identifying and validating new targets for drug action, and designing and developing new drugs to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Pharmacology research is also an important part of the advancement of modern personalised medicine.

This industry provides numerous job opportunities, with pharmaceutical companies and healthcare providers among the largest employers. Knowing the various career paths available to you if you have a pharmacology degree is very important. A pharmacology degree allows you to work in a variety of pharmacology degree jobs. In this article, we will look at pharmacology degree jobs, their average salaries, and primary responsibilities which will help you decide on your career in Pharmacology after pursuing your graduation.

  • Pharmacist

The average base salary of a Pharmacist is ₹2,80,742 per year. If you have a pharmacology degree, you can work in a variety of pharmacology departments. A pharmacist’s job is to provide medication and treatment information. They may write prescriptions, respond to questions about drug interactions or side effects, and advise patients on dosages. Pharmacists typically work in community pharmacies or hospitals, and they may conduct drug or treatment research.

Learn the Tips and Tricks to learn Pharmacology

  • Pharmacy Operations Manager

The average base salary of a Pharmacy Operations Manager is ₹ 4,37,289 per year. They are in charge of the day-to-day operations of a pharmacy department. They typically collaborate with medical professionals to meet the pharmaceutical needs of patients. They monitor inventory levels ensuring compliance with federal policies and keeping accurate records. They also supervise pharmacy employees.

  • Pharmacologist

The average base salary of a Pharmacologist is ₹ 4,91,318 per year. A pharmacologist is in charge of scientific research, drug development, and evaluation. They perform laboratory testing to determine the overall safety and efficacy of medications. They also decide on dosage safety, including administration, age, and amount.

  • Clinical Research Associate

The average base salary of a Clinical Research Associate is ₹ 3,29,875 per year. A clinical research associate is in charge of clinical research and trials. They frequently create testing procedures, select and set up trial sites, and monitor tests. They present protocols to ethics committees and write reports on each trial’s results. They ensure strict data collection and participation.

  • Pharmaceutical Scientist

The average base salary of a Pharmaceutical Scientist is ₹ 7,03,365 per year. A pharmaceutical scientist conducts drug research and development in laboratory experiments. They study biological processes and evaluate the efficacy of new drugs in counteracting, correcting, or slowing harmful biological activity. They establish testing procedures to assess the short and long-term biological effects and interactions of pharmaceutical compounds. They also develop new approaches to existing medical problems and assist drug developers in other ways.

  • Pharmaceutical Consultant

The average base salary of a Pharmaceutical Consultant is ₹5,04,206 per year. They assist pharmaceutical companies in becoming more efficient and providing better products to their customers. They assist clients by identifying operational problems, eliminating waste, and suggesting solutions, such as new technologies, like a business or management consultant who specialises in pharmaceuticals. A pharmaceutical consultant may assist with project management, cost forecasting, and recommending plans, such as clients and distribution methods. They also aid in the development of compliance policies.

  • Quality Control Chemist

The average base salary of a Quality Control Chemist is ₹2,29,103 per year. A quality control chemist is in charge of ensuring that drugs and other formulations meet the established safety standards. They inspect raw materials and finished products for quality, test new ingredients, and help with product development. They conduct experiments to determine whether a drug is safe for use with their knowledge of chemistry, biology, and mathematics.


Watch this video lecture on NSAIDs – Anti-gout drug

  • Environmental Monitor

The average base salary of an Environmental Monitor is ₹7,89,873 per year. An environmental monitor assesses the chemical and physical properties of environmental conditions, such as water or soil samples. They conduct research to identify sources of pollution in the environment. They may also review and update company policies and operating procedures for compliance with local and federal regulations.

  • Regulatory Affairs Specialist

The average base salary of a Regulatory Affairs Specialist is ₹5,74,873 per year. They manage regulatory submissions to government agencies. They prepare applications and supporting documentation, as well as monitor FDA regulations governing clinical trials and product development. They keep in touch with government officials and may attend regulatory hearings or product approvals.

  • Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Technician

The average base salary of a Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Technician is ₹3,00,00 per year. A pharmaceutical manufacturing technician collaborates with other members of a team to create pharmaceutical products. They assist in the development of new products while adhering to proper safety and quality standards. They may also be in charge of the lab’s equipment and inventory.

  • Medical Writer

The average base salary of a Medical Writer is ₹5,33,434 per year. A medical writer creates articles and reports that explain how to use pharmaceutical products for medical purposes. They typically collaborate with doctors, patients, or researchers to collect information for drug trials or treatment protocols. They also contribute to the creation of patient leaflets that contain information about each pharmaceutical, such as indications, descriptions, proper usage, methods of ingestion or application, and potential side effects or warnings.

  • Lab Manager

The average base salary of a Lab Manager is ₹5,13,023 per year. A lab manager is in charge of seeing laboratory processes and staff activities. They help scientists, technicians, and medical professionals by providing lab support, adhering to safety protocols, and maintaining lab equipment. A lab manager organises a laboratory’s daily activities in order to maximise productivity.

  • Pharmaceutical Sales Representative

The average base salary of a Pharmaceutical Sales Representative is ₹2,98,254 per year. They counsel physicians on the advantages of various pharmaceutical products for their patients. They research the competitive landscape of various pharmaceutical markets in order to promote their company’s products. A pharmaceutical sales representative may also monitor doctors’ prescribing habits and assist in the development of marketing strategies.

  • Medical Writing Manager

The average base salary of a Medical Writing Manager is ₹13,91,567 per year. Medical writers who create promotional materials for new drugs and treatments are overseen by a medical writing manager. They may create press releases, blog posts, or other content to educate patients and the media about medical advances. They consult with clients directly to determine the scope of research reports.

  • Analytical Chemist

The average base salary of an Analytical Chemist is ₹3,95,467 per year. An analytical chemist performs experiments to determine and analyse the chemical structure of various compounds. They are in charge of testing pharmaceutical products such as new drug formulations or over-the-counter medications. They frequently work in groups with other chemists and technicians.


Watch this video to learn about β Lactam Antibiotics–Cephalosporins, Carbopenems & Monobactam

  • Medical Science Liaison

The average base salary of a Medical Science Liaison is ₹8,45,000 per year. A medical science liaison communicates drug and medical treatment information to physicians, patients, and the general public. They may collaborate with scientific teams, regulatory agencies, and pharmaceutical companies to provide clients with information about new products or clinical study results. They may also help with the recruitment of test participants for studies.

  • Laboratory Technician

The average base salary of a Laboratory Technician is ₹2,48,718 per year. A laboratory technician provides clinical and basic research assistance to a laboratory scientist or physician. They prepare samples for analysis, monitor processes, and assess drug levels in blood tests. A laboratory technician may administer medication to animals in the lab to test for results and side effects, as well as perform tests to identify drug interactions, under the supervision of a medical professional.

  • Microbiology Technician

The average base salary of a Microbiology Technician is ₹3,06,000 per year. A microbiology technician performs tests to identify pathogenic microorganisms and monitor the levels of bacteria in food and water. They help doctors by identifying different disease-causing microbes or the source of infection. They may also contribute to the development of new drugs and treatments by studying how microorganisms interact with different chemicals.

  • Clinical Research Coordinator

The average base salary of a Clinical Research Coordinator is ₹2,51,331 per year. A clinical research coordinator collaborates with other members of a team to plan and manage clinical trials. They communicate with medical professionals and insurance companies to obtain approval for each study and to keep patient records for the duration of the study. They may also travel or work outside of business hours, depending on the study’s schedule and needs.

In conclusion, Pharmacology is one of the fastest growing sectors in the healthcare industry, and it is important to the sector’s sustenance. An Undergrad degree or a Postgrad degree or a Ph.D. degree in Pharmacology increases employment opportunities, career scope, and prospects. The advancement of science and technology has increased our understanding of diseases, their causes, and potential treatments, making pharmacology a discipline rich in potential and fraught with challenges. This industry will almost certainly continue to expand.

DigiNerve’s Pharmacology for UnderGrads

Learn pharmacology online by preparing with pharmacology online courses which are available vastly. All you need to do is research the best online pharmacology courses like Pharmacology for UnderGrads, in which modules are aligned with the standard pharmacology textbook, allowing students to take a systematic approach. The course clarifies fundamental concepts and keeps students up to date on the most recent advances.


Watch this to know more about the course and learn the right way to approach Pharmacology

Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1 What can you do with a Pharmacology Degree?

Those who are interested in biology and chemistry may find a rewarding career in pharmacology. If you want to work in the pharmaceutical industry, learning more about the jobs available with a pharmacology degree can be helpful. In this article, we define pharmacology degrees, describe the courses they include, discuss the jobs you can get with one, and discuss the skills you can learn in pharmacology programmes.

Q.2 What does a pharmacology degree include?

Pharmacology programmes teach scientific concepts as well as practical pharmacology applications. Courses can vary in difficulty and progression depending on the level of degree and specific school. A pharmacology degree curriculum may include the following courses:

  • Research Conduction
  • Fundamentals of pharmacology
  • Cell signaling and receptors
  • Biomedical science
  • Reproducibility in pharmaceuticals
  • Biomedical statistics
  • Bimolecular basics
  • Protein chemistry
  • Immunology
  • Drug development
  • Virology and pathogenesis
  • Neuropharmacology
  • Experimental treatments
  • Endocrine pharmacology
  • Drug metabolism

Q.3 What skills can you develop with a pharmacology degree?

Students in pharmacology programmes are prepared for successful careers in the pharmaceutical industry. A pharmacology degree can help them develop the following skills:

  • Research skills

Research skills enable pharmacists to gather information and find solutions to problems. Note-taking, time management, communication, and problem-solving are examples of research skills.

  • Attention to detail

The ability to pay attention to detail allows you to review materials with precision and accuracy while noticing minor details. This is a valuable skill that you can hone in a pharmacology programme by carrying out experiments and noting minor details during trials.

  • Critical thinking

The ability to assess a situation, gather important information, identify problems, and offer workable solutions is referred to as critical thinking. Students in pharmacology learn to develop their critical thinking skills by completing exercises and collaborating with their peers to solve problems.

Pharmacology is the study of how medicines interact with biological systems. Research into medicines’ chemical make-up, biological functions, effects on physiology and behavior, mechanisms of action, and both therapeutic and non-therapeutic applications are all covered in this and are part of the 2nd year curriculum of MBBS. Since the treatment of patients requires medicines, knowledge regarding the subject is not going to hurt you, and the more knowledge you have, the better your treatments would be. Pharmacology in MBBS is often considered a volatile subject and a subject that has to be mugged up. This is not the case! Pharmacology is a beautiful subject, and it can be understood without mugging up, and there are quintillion applications for you in the future with the knowledge you acquire in Pharmacology. In this write-up, I would be telling you the various tips and tricks I personally have used and succeeded in learning and understanding Pharmacology. So let’s dive right into it.

Things to focus

The most important thing to address in any given topic in Pharmacology would be to understand

  • What to study?
  • How to study?
  • How to memorize?
  • What to write in the examination?

The first question

What to study?

This is a very important and relevant question that you need to understand. Let’s take the chapter on diabetes mellitus to make this idea clear.

Step 1: Understand normal physiology

The β-cells of the pancreas secrete insulin. Insulin stimulates the movement of glucose from the plasma into the skeletal muscles & adipose tissues. This will cause a reduction in plasma glucose.

Step 2: Disease pathophysiology

In Diabetes Mellitus pancreas is producing less amounts of insulin or the pancreas is producing normal amounts of insulin but insulin is not able to produce its action properly due to some defect in the insulin receptors. Both these will cause an increase in plasma glucose. This will result in hyperglycemia. Since the person is not able to utilize glucose he will be always hungry (polyphagia) since his body is interpreting that the body is not getting glucose because the person is not taking glucose. The higher levels of plasma glucose will be filtered by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Glucose will draw water along with it which will result in urination (polyuria) and due to excessive loss of water, it will cause the person to be thirsty (polydipsia).

Step 3: Classify the drug classes depending upon the mechanism of action

In diabetes mellitus, the plasma glucose is elevated. The agents used for the management of DM would reduce plasma glucose. If there is a deficiency of insulin, we need to supplement insulin as in the case with type I DM (where there is reduced insulin secretion). Where the action of insulin is improper, we can use agents that will reduce plasma glucose. These agents act mainly by four mechanisms.

Group 1: Agents that increase the insulin secretion

Group 2: Agents that increase the action of insulin

Group 3: Agents that reduce the reabsorption of glucose from the kidney

Group 4: Agents that inhibit the gastrointestinal absorption of glucose

The action of drugs via these mechanisms will result in a reduction of plasma glucose.

Step 4: Individual groups of drugs

For explanation purposes, let’s discuss the agents that increase insulin secretion. These agents are classified as

  • Sulfonylurea
  • Meglitinide analogues
  • GLP-1 agonists
  • DPP-4 inhibitors

It becomes impossible to learn all the drugs named in your textbooks, so the easiest way to learn is to learn about groups of drugs and their common properties. Each group would have a prefix or a suffix with the base word.

For example, Sulfonylurea has the prefix ‘Gli

  • Glipizide
  • Gliclazide
  • Glibenclamide
  • Glimepiride

Another example would be DPP-4 inhibitors which have the suffix ‘gliptin’.

  • Sitagliptin
  • Vildagliptin

This helps to remember a lot of names and classes of the drugs.

Step 5: Specific mechanism of action of the group of drugs

Let’s take the example of sulfonyl urea. As we know now that sulfonyl urea increases insulin secretion. Now we need to know the mechanism of action in depth. Normally the β-cells of the pancreas have K+ channels which move potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular. This results in the hyperpolarization of these cells. Sulfonyl urea blocks these K+ channels resulting in the depolarization of β-cells which cause insulin secretion.

Step 6: Understanding the peculiar pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs

Route of administration is one thing to consider. Oral bioavailability (very low or very high oral bioavailability), plasma protein binding (low or high protein binding), metabolizing enzymes (whether there are any potential interactions), and the predominant elimination method.

Step 7: Uses of the drug

First, write the primary use of the drug against disease, and then the secondary use related to the topic. Sulfonyl urea is only used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Step 8: Adverse effects

There is a practice of writing nausea and vomiting as adverse drug reactions for every drug, This will not fetch you any marks. Be very specific while mentioning the adverse effects of the drug. E.g. Since sulfonyl urea increases insulin secretion, sulfonyl urea can cause hypoglycemia as an adverse effect. Since insulin is an anabolic hormone, an increase in insulin secretion will result in weight gain.

Step 9: Interactions if any

Learn the therapeutically significant interactions. E.g., Sulfonyl urea increase insulin secretion, and the use of sulfonyl urea with insulin can cause hypoglycemia.

Step 10: Lastly, write down the Contraindications, if any

This is not applicable to all the drugs but write wherever required. This is must-know information for the effective treatment of any disease or illness. For example, Sulfa urea groups will cause hypersensitivity reactions in people who are already allergic/sensitive to drugs containing sulfa groups.

How to study Pharmacology?

Here are some tips and tricks to study pharmacology for MBBS in the easiest way,

  1. Consistency is the key to learning: No matter how many hours you study before the exam, unless you are regular in understanding & revising your concepts, you cannot ace any exam. Shortcuts and voracious reading at the end of exams can help you only a little bit. Be consistent.
  2. Focus on ‘must know’ topics: Always keep your prime focus on the ‘must know’ topics and learn and memorize them regularly to have a better understanding of the subject.
  3. Use Mnemonics and memory tricks for Pharmacology: Make your own mnemonics so that you can easily relate and memorize them for a longer time. For instance, for memorizing the adverse effects of sulfonyl urea, you can use the mnemonic “Hari has gained some weight”, in this sentence, H indicates Hypoglycaemia and weight gain would be the next important adverse effect.
  4. Make notes: The pharmacology subject has more content to learn and memorize and so is easy to forget. To solve this problem, make your own notes so that it helps in the revision of the topic and future reading as well. Taking notes during the lecture also helps a lot in learning and identifying key areas of the topic.
  5. Use flow charts, diagrams & tables: Flowcharts and diagrams are a very convenient and informative way of memorizing pharmacology. It helps to remember the core concepts, especially the mechanism of action of the drugs, normal physiology, pathophysiology of the disease, etc.
  6. Conceptual clarity: There is a lot to memorize in pharmacology, so don’t cram the lengthy textbooks, rather, focus on clearing the concepts, gaining in-depth knowledge of the topic by studying regularly in a proper manner, and asking doubts.
  1. Study sequentially: Understand the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the disease first before going into details of drugs. This will help you have a clear understanding of the topic.

How to memorize Pharmacology?

This is a frequently asked question, there is no shortcut to memorizing pharmacology but with repeated reading. Effective learning and conceptual clarity are a must to memorize pharmacology.

What to write in the Examination?

Write the answers in an orderly fashion highlighting the specific points in arranged format depending upon the question. Imagine this question in your examination, sulfonyl urea?

Your complete answer should include the following headings

  • A brief introduction to diabetes mellitus
  • Mechanism of action, in the case of sulfonyl urea, increases insulin secretion (a general mechanism) and sulfonyl urea inhibits the potassium channels in the β-cells of the pancreas thereby causing depolarization and release of insulin (a specific mechanism)
  • Any peculiar pharmacokinetic properties
  • Uses (Primary and then secondary both and more focus on the primary uses will fetch more marks)
  • Specific adverse effects (don’t just mention nausea and vomiting always, BE SPECIFIC)
  • Mention therapeutically significant interactions.
  • Don’t forget to mention the precautions and contraindications, if any.

To learn the conceptual clarity in Pharmacology online, subscribe to CBME & NEET-oriented Pharmacology for UnderGrads course.

Dr. Nirmal George
Associate Professor
Sree Gokulam Medical College & Research Foundation (SGMC&RF),
Trivandrum, Kerala

Microbiologist: A scientist who researches microscopic life processes and life forms is known as a microbiologist. This includes researching the development, relationships, and characteristics of microscopic creatures like bacteria, algae, fungi, several kinds of parasites, and their hosts. Microbiology is used in many aspects of daily life, including food production, biodegradation, the production of commercial goods, and genetic engineering.
In private biotechnology firms and higher education, most microbiologists focus on a particular area of microbiology, such as bacteriology, parasitology, virology, or immunology. Thus, the goal of microbiology is to increase our fundamental understanding of microbes through the investigation of their morphology, metabolism, physiology, reproduction, and genetics. It’s possible that in the next few years, microbiology may be used in a variety of other ways that will be extremely advantageous to humanity in every way. To comprehend these organisms’ traits and identify them, microbiologists concentrate on their identification and growth. This is done with the overarching goal of preventing, identifying, and treating infectious diseases.

Work done by Microbiologists: Microbiologists in India work on a variety of projects that improve our quality of life, including monitoring the impact of microbes on climate change, inventing green technology, guaranteeing the safety of our food, and treating and preventing disease. Microbiologists research microorganisms like viruses, algae, bacteria, fungi, and a few sorts of parasites. They attempt to understand how these creatures live, develop, and interface with their surroundings. Most microbiologists work in research groups with different researchers and experts. By understanding microorganisms, microbiologists hope to provide answers to many significant global questions.

Watch the video to learn Major Healthcare-associated Infection

A wide range of professions in the industry (marketing, technical support, and regulatory affairs), education (teaching, museums, and scientific institutions), business (patent attorney or accountant), and communications (public relations, journalism, and publishing) are also open to microbiologists. The National Health Service organizations, the pharmaceutical and water sectors, as well as forensic science laboratories, employ the majority of those who work in hospitals, laboratories, and offices. The field of microbiology is wide and has connections to biochemistry and immunology, among other biological sciences.

Healthcare microbiologists
Microbes can be helpful in both health and sickness since they are employed to create novel treatments that aid in the treatment of illnesses and diseases. Microbiologists must first understand how microbes function to tackle microbe-related issues and take advantage of their talents. They can then apply this knowledge to create new technologies, treat or prevent disease, and generally enhance our quality of life. To treat diseases, microbiologists are crucial. Many doctors and scientists work in medical facilities and labs, examining body fluids, blood, and human tissue to diagnose infections, track the efficiency of therapies, or detect disease outbreaks. In hospitals, universities, and medical school labs, some microbiologists hold clinical scientist positions where they conduct research and offer medical staff scientific guidance. To produce vaccines and enhance existing therapies, other microbiologists focus on bacteria that cause diseases like the flu or tuberculosis.

Climate change and the environment
The carbon and nitrogen cycle are both critical to the functioning of the planet’s nutrition cycles and depend on bacteria. Some microbiologists’ research shows how microorganisms coexist with other animals in a variety of environments, including the ocean, salt lakes, and polar regions. Additionally, engineers and technologists collaborate with microbiologists to create cleaner energy sources derived from municipal and industrial waste.

• Food Availability and Agriculture
Millions of bacteria help us absorb nutrients from food and fight off harmful germs in our stomachs to keep us healthy. Microbiologists study how important soil bacteria are. Some focus on controlling plant diseases and pests, while others use microorganisms to manage weeds and insect pests. Others conduct studies on the microorganisms that afflict farm animals. Microbiologists are employed by numerous bioscience and food industries where they conduct research and create new goods.

The key steps to becoming a microbiologist after passing class 12th board exams are mentioned below:
• UG Preparation: Candidates can complete MBBS with Microbiology for UnderGrads including biochemistry or cell biology. The candidate should complete foundational courses in computer science, arithmetic, statistics, physics, microbial genetics, environmental microbiology, virology, and biochemistry. Candidates can also pursue B.Sc. with Microbiology. The candidates should be knowledgeable in lab sessions to pursue a career in microbiology in India. By enrolling in preparation classes, applicants should also start their PG admission preparation.
• PG Preparation: After finishing the UG course, the candidate can select to concentrate on PG courses that would work on the possibility of their vocation. M.Sc. in Microbiology can be sought after by the up-and-comers after the culmination of a B.Sc.

After getting your degree you also need to:

• Get some work experience: You might need to concentrate on acquiring work experience concurrently with or after your study. The study of microbiology offers opportunities for both intellectual involvement and practical application. You can apply for internships early on to acquire a good sense of the field and the career positions associated with it, depending on where your interest lies.
• Obtain a doctorate – You must earn a Ph.D. in your branch of microbiology if you intend to conduct independent research, work for a university or government research organization, or both. This covers academic practice, fieldwork, and education for conducting research. A post-graduate degree in a relevant topic with at least a 55% overall average is required for doctoral applications, which may additionally contain a minimum amount of relevant work experience.

Watch this to learn the right way to approach Microbiology


Few Career Opportunities for Microbiology Majors
Opportunities for employment in the government sector, hospitals, public health laboratories, research labs, and industrial laboratories are available to graduates with a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree in microbiology (food, dairy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and genetic engineering companies). Students who pursue degrees beyond the B.Sc have job options in these fields, along with teaching positions in colleges and universities, which come with greater responsibility and commensurately better pay.

* Some of the possible positions are:

-Technician for research laboratories
-Food or dairy microbiologist
-Microbial environmentalist
-Clinical microbiologist or immunologist
-Quality control analyst
-DNA technologists
-Veterinary microbiologists
-Microbial public health specialist
-Biomedical scientists
-Research assistants
-Food technologists
-Environmental microbiologists
-Clinical microbiologists
-Industrial microbiologists

Microbiological graduates are in high demand for their strong scientific, analytical, and problem-solving abilities. It is open to both the public and private sectors. Qualified microbiologists are employed by companies working in agriculture, food, and beverages, chemicals, environmental agencies, private hospitals, research institutes, universities, pharmaceutical companies, and laboratories. Numerous respected companies in India hire skilled microbiologists, including Pfizer, the Indian Hotel Company, Mascot International, the Piramal Group, Sun Pharma, Fortis Hospitals, Apollo Hospitals, Lakshmi Life Sciences, and others. Microbiologists are in high demand worldwide. Opportunities in fields such as healthcare companies, forensic science labs, environmental groups, higher education institutions, food, and beverage, publicly supported research groups, pharmaceuticals, and many more businesses are available to those who hold a degree in microbiology.

Benefits of a Career in Microbiology:

The significant advantages of choosing a career in microbiology are:

• Microbiologists are interested in the study of microorganisms and their various properties, which has a positive impact on their careers. The individual’s career skill set can be improved by using cutting-edge technology to examine the test and culture medium. Additionally, the possibility of participating in the development of a novel vaccine or viral solution can benefit the microbiologist’s career.
• The development of new vaccinations that can stop the spread of illnesses and save millions of lives become possible because of microbiologists.
• Microbiologists research the traits of the bacteria that aid in the creation of various foods and related goods. As a result of their unique experience, millions of people now have access to food security.

Microbiology Career Salary
With the required qualifications, you can earn an annual salary of around INR 3 lakhs as a microbiologist. Working for the government or a private company will earn you a respectable income as well as perks and other benefits. The annual income depends on the area of microbiology that the candidate has specialized in; for instance, a microbiologist can earn over INR 8 lakhs at the senior level, while an industrial microbiologist can earn over INR 5 lakhs at the senior level. Microbiologists with master’s or doctoral degrees can earn extremely significant salaries in both industries. The salary will also depend on a variety of things, like the company, industry, job description, location, etc. Experience is crucial in this industry as it gives you the chance to discover a specific vocation that suits you.
Microbiologists with experience are paid more in this specialty. Microbiology is not easy. Instead, it requires a lot of hard work, but again it is still considered highly competitive in the industry because of this. Experts in the field of microbiology must be well-educated, and well-trained. The field of microbiology will prove to be the best fit for you if you feel at ease working in laboratories and behind the scenes in academic research. If you enrol in one of the top universities offering microbiology courses in India, the field has a wide range of potential applications and can provide you with several international chances.

The prime goal of the discipline of Community Medicine is preventing disease, promoting health, and prolonging life, by providing comprehensive health care for the holistic health of the community. Hence, the discipline goes beyond classroom teaching and bedside patient care, to reach out to the community with a focus on underprivileged and marginalized population.

Community Medicine is a branch of Medicine dealing with the promotion of health and prevention of diseases, involving people’s participation and utilizing professional management skills. It is primarily focused on providing primary, secondary, and tertiary care, control and prevention of outbreaks or epidemics, community diagnosis, health needs assessment, epidemiological assessment, research, and planning evidence-based health policies and programs. Hence, the discipline covers all the domains of learning viz. cognitive, affective, and psychomotor as shown below (Figure 1).

  • Cognitive domain i.e. knowing the vision and mission of the discipline
  • Affective domain i.e. feeling and understanding the needs and demands of the community
  • Psychomotor i.e. identifying problems and designing and implementing measures to solve these problems.

The domains of learning Community Medicine

Figure 1: The domains of learning Community Medicine

Recently, the undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) medical curricula in India have been updated and subsequently implemented across the country from academic session 2019 onwards for UG and 2020 onwards for PG courses, as Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME). At the undergraduate level, there is an integration of the related disciplines, designed to give the students a holistic understanding of the various subjects to function appropriately and effectively as a physician of first contact. The new CBME curriculum for Community Medicine for UG students provides several learning opportunities, to provide comprehensive care to the community by way of the Family Adoption Program, along with theory and practical classes throughout the first three phases of the course. In addition, there is an elective posting for eight weeks after the third phase, for which the students can choose any of the options offered including posting at health centers for primary health care to the community. Finally, during the Internship, the students are posted in District Hospitals to get sensitized to the real-life situation in rural areas.

How to prepare yourself for examination in Community Medicine?

Considering the various domains of learning that Community Medicine covers, a student is also evaluated during examinations on all these aspects. Hence, you should prepare yourself by (1) reading standard textbooks and class notes for knowledge and understanding; (2) making frequent visits to the community and the families allotted to you; (3) attending practical teaching sessions in the community and public health organizations for assessing the problems and their solutions. In addition, you should attend practical classes on identifying spot specimens and working out epidemiological and statistical exercises.

You should learn to understand priority topics and give focus accordingly. There are some ‘must know’ areas which you have to learn for passing your examination as well as for knowing the subject that will help you life-long in delivering comprehensive care. There are some areas within the subject that you ‘should know’ which will help you to perform well in examination as well as improve your competence in being a physician of first contact. You should give adequate focus and time to these areas for doing well in your examinations. Having covered these areas, there are some ‘nice to know’ areas that will help you to perform excellently and thus stand out among your fellow students and professionals (Figure 2).

Priority areas for learning Community Medicine

Figure 2: Priority areas for learning Community Medicine

What are the prime focus topics for examination in Community Medicine?

As you understand, every topic is important for learning to help you perform well in your examinations as well as gain expertise to become a competent and effective professional person. However, for prioritization, you may consider the following areas most important.

  • Epidemiology and Biostatistics
  • Problems of vulnerable population groups viz. infant and under-five children, adolescents, antenatal and postnatal women, women in reproductive age group, and the program in India for providing care for these population groups
  • Communicable and non-communicable diseases with objectives and strategies under the related national health programs
  • Major determinants of health viz. nutrition, water and sanitation, entomology, biomedical waste management
  • Problems and programs for other vulnerable populations viz. occupational groups and elderly population
  • Health education and behavior change communication
  • Health planning, evaluation, and management techniques
  • Health care delivery system in India with the major landmark international and national policies related to healthcare delivery

What are the learning resources for Community Medicine?

Community Medicine is learned from both print and electronic learning materials as well as real-life situations. Some of the standard books that you may follow are given below. However, this is not an exhaustive list. You may read any other book of your choice.

  1. Kadri AM. IAPSM’s Textbook of Community Medicine
  2. Banerjee B. DigiNerve’s Community Medicine for UnderGrads Course
  3. Suryakantha AH. Community Medicine with Recent Advances
  4. Banerjee B. DK Taneja’s Health Policies & Programmes in India
  5. Banerjee B. Mahajan’s Method on Biostatistics for Medical Students and Research Workers.

In addition to these, there are reports and publications of the World Health Organization and Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, and other reputed national and international organizations, which are available on the internet, which you may read if interested.

A lot of Community Medicine can also be learned by following the current news, a great example of which is the recent COVID-19 pandemic for which various preventive and public health measures have been taken both globally and nationally.

Following what you have learned and disseminating messages of health promotion and disease prevention to those around you, will also help to improve your psychomotor skills.

What are the learning methods to perform well in examination in Community Medicine?

The secret of learning is to be regular, attentive, and hardworking. Since Community Medicine is taught right from the first year and continued for three and a half years, you should be regular throughout, failing which it will be difficult for you to catch up in the last moment. Hence, follow all the points given below.

  • Attend all theory classes, practical sessions, and family visits, regularly and attentively
  • Read the topic taught, after returning from class each day
  • Try to understand the concepts and not only memorize
  • Take class notes and make your notes for quick revision
  • Focus first on priority areas i.e. ‘must know’ and ‘should know’
  • Having understood these areas, you may try to move on to the ‘nice to know’ areas
  • Revise multiple times
  • Attempt solving previous years’ question papers and MCQs.

How will DigiNerve help you to learn Community Medicine?

The course material for Community Medicine for Undergrads on the DigiNerve app addresses all the domains of learning. The entire CBME syllabus has been split into five sections including one section on the practical aspect, with topics and units under each section. In the theory part covered in the first four sections, every aspect is discussed and explained in detail. The practical section presents how to study a family with an index case, along with pictures and salient features of spots and specimens, and how to solve epidemiological and statistical exercises to help you understand and work out by yourselves.

Watch this video to learn the Right way to approach Community Medicine by Dr. Bratati Banerjee.

So, welcome to the world of Community Medicine and happy learning!

Wish you all the best in your journey through the subject.

Dr. Bratati Banerjee
Director Professor, Department of Community Medicine,
Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

In OBGYN, OB refers to Obstetrics or Obstetrician, a doctor who specializes in the care of women and their babies during pregnancy and childbirth. GYN stands for Gynecology or Gynecologist, a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of female reproductive disorders. OBGYN is a branch of medicine that deals with the entire female reproductive health of pregnant as well as non-pregnant females.

OBGYNs diagnose and treat diseases of the female reproductive organs. They treat various other women’s health issues such as hormonal problems, menstruation issues, contraception, infertility, and reproductive tract infections. They also hold the responsibility of childbirth via normal delivery, cesarian sections, pregnancy complications, fetal signs, and growth and also help women with psychological distress and counseling.


The following steps are undertaken by students who aspire to become an OBGYN:

  • From the beginning, aspirants must complete the senior secondary education with the PCB stream with at least 50% marks.
  • Further, they should crack the NEET UG exam to get admission to medical college (Government/ Private).
  • After obtaining an MBBS degree, they need to appear for the NEET- PG entrance examination.
  • A good score in NEET-PG gives a push to admission to the medical college for the OBGYN PG course.
  • Aspirants must complete a junior resident responsibility to gain a post-graduation degree.
  • After the successful completion, they must obtain a license and become board certified.


  • Candidates should have completed an MBBS degree from a college/institution recognized by the Medical Council of India (MCI) with a minimum of 55% marks.
  • They must have undergone the one-year compulsory internship after completing the course.
  • Candidates must clear the NEET PG exam to be eligible for admission to recognized universities/colleges.
  • For the general category, the candidate must obtain at least 50th percentile marks in NEET PG for admission to MD/MS courses. For SC, ST, and OBC, the minimum percentage requirement is the 40th
  • For the candidate with benchmark disability specified under the Rights of Persons with Disability Act 2016, for the GEN-EWS and unreserved category 45th percentile is required. For, SC/ST/OBC-NCL candidates, the minimum marks shall be 40th
  • In some cases, admission to post-graduate medical courses may also include a group discussion/personal interview after the entrance examination depending on the college.
  • Final confirmation of admission depends on the cut-off marks and the counseling procedure.


MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) is an undergraduate medical sciences course with a duration of 5.5 years including an internship. Admission to the MBBS is solely based on an entrance examination. The NEET (UG) entrance examination is the only valid examination to get admission in MBBS in government or private medical colleges recognized by MCI (Medical Council of India). A student needs to get into the merit list and undergo the counseling procedure for admission to MBBS successfully.

After getting admission to medical college, a student needs to learn various subjects like microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, medicine, pediatrics, OBGYN, community medicine, surgery, and more.

Undergraduate students study OBGYN in their 4th prof, where they go through case discussions in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Along with this, a medico needs to complete a one-month OBGYN internship. During this internship, they get training in Obstetrics & Gynaecology OPD’s Wards and OTs, Labour Room, and Family Planning OPD and OT.


OBGYN is a three-year full-time postgraduate course in medical sciences. The course consists of a comprehensive, superior examination of the complete medical pathology related to the female reproductive organs, and provision of care to each non-pregnant and pregnant patient.

Admission to OBGYN MD is done through national-level entrance examinations like NEET-PG, and INI-CET. In PG OBGYN, students get familiar with the latest society guidelines, benchmark trials, and recent advancements in PCOS, Robotic Surgery, and performing clinical examinations. They are asked for pertinent tests, decipher the results, and implement medical/surgical management in the specialty clinics, OPD, wards, labor room, and operating rooms. They learn to use medical capabilities to evaluate troubles in pregnancy and discover techniques and relevant prognoses.
Watch this video to understand this important topic of OBGYN through case-based discussion


MBBS students need to undergo and crack the NEET-PG entrance examination for admission to medical college for PG OBGYN. The NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) is a national-level entrance examination for admission to pursue medical sciences; NEET UG for the undergraduate medical courses (MBBS, BDS, BAMS, BHMS), and NEET PG for the doctors to get admitted to various postgraduate courses (MD/MS) and diploma courses.

Admission for PG to government and private colleges depends on the ranking of the medicos in the NEET-PG entrance Examination. The examination body of NEET PG is the National Board of Examinations and further, the Directorate General of Health Services conducts the counselling and seat allotment process.

Institutes that are exempted from admission via the NEET PG exam are:

  1. AIIMSs

These institutes come under the INI (Institute of National Importance).

To get admission to INI (Institute of National Importance) institutions, medicos must get into the merit of the INI-CET (Institute of National Importance Combined Entrance Test).

INI- CET is a combined entrance examination to the INI institutes for PG courses in medical Sciences [MD, MS, DM (6 years), MCh (6 years), and MDS]

List of Participating INI Institutes for INI-CET:

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda, Punjab
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, Telangana
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Deoghar, Jharkhand
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur, Maharashtra
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
  • Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry
  • Postgraduate Institute of Medical Science and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh
  • National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, Karnataka
  • Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Thiruvananathapuram, Kerala


MRCOG Examination:

This examination is specially designed by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists for OBGYN doctors to assess their skills, knowledge, and competencies. This exam comprises three parts- MRCOG Part 1, MRCOG Part 2 & MRCOG Part 3. Membership of RCOGs is awarded upon the successful completion of all three stages of the exam.


Some of the colleges for admission to PG-OBGYN are listed below:

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
  • Armed Forces Medical College, Pune
  • IMS BHU- Indian Institute of Medical Sciences- Banaras Hindu University, Banaras
  • Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore
  • Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
  • Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi
  • JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research), Puducherry
  • Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh
  • King George Medical College, Lucknow
  • Madras Medical College, Chennai
  • Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
  • Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
  • VMMC College, New Delhi
  • Goa Medical College, Panaji


There are four papers:

PAPER I: Applied Basic sciences: Physiology and anatomy of the female reproductive system, pharmacological and hormonal roles, obstetric and gynecological markers – non-neoplastic and neoplastic, medical genetics, anatomical and physiological changes in the female reproductive tract during pregnancy, pharmacology of drugs used during labor and after birth

PAPER II: Obstetrics including Social Obstetrics & Diseases of Newborn: Prenatal Care: Risky Pregnancy, Obstetrics: Postpartum, Vaginal delivery, caesarean section, Hysterectomy, Destructive Surgery, Manipulation (external/internal pod version, manual placental removal, etc.), Medical Abortion – Safe Abortion – Case Selection, Complication Techniques, and Treatment, MTP, newborn.

PAPER Ill: Gynecology: Clinical gynecology, Family Welfare, and demography, Male and female infertility.

PAPER IV: Recent Advances in Obstetrics & Gynaecology

  • Along with four theory papers, doctors pursuing MD OBGYN have to do Practical Examinations in Obstetrics and Gynecology:

Clinical long case and short case including viva of:

  • Instruments
  • Pathological specimen,
  • Medicines and X-rays, ultrasounds, etc.
  • Dummy Pelvis
  • Family planning
  • Students identify relevant research questions
  • Conduct a critical literature review
  • Hypothesize
  • Determine the most appropriate study design
  • State the purpose of the research
  • Preparation of test protocols
  • Conduct the study according to the protocol
  • Analyze and interpret research data and draw conclusions
  • Write a research paper
  • PG OBGYN students are also required to complete their OBGYN residency and postings.

Watch this video to learn the right way to approach OBGYN MD


Undoubtedly, the course is highly respected, job oriented, and lucrative. This opens doors to a variety of job prospects such as Maternal-fetal medicine specialists, Reproductive endocrinologists, Gynecologic oncologists, Female pelvic specialists, critical care medicine specialists, professors, clinical associates, junior consultants, senior residents, consultants, general physicians, researchers, private practitioners, govt. doctors, and private clinicians. Moreover, the OBGYN can go for research and higher studies in research centres and universities.

FAQs (Frequently asked questions)

Q1.What is the difference between an Obstetrician and a Gynecologist?

Ans. A gynecologist is mainly trained in female reproductive care whereas an obstetrician cares for pregnant women and newborns.

Q2. Who is the first female Surgeon General in India?

Ans. Mary Poonen Lukose was an Indian gynecologist, obstetrician, and the first female Surgeon General in India.

Q3. Can a person pursue OBGYN without an MBBS degree?

Ans. Yes, one can pursue a career in OBGYN after a BAMS degree if not MBBS. A diploma course in OBGYN can be done as well after a BAMS degree.

Q4. How can I enter the OBGYN field?

Ans. You can undergo a three-year postgraduate course in OBGYN (MS/MD) after doing MBBS or a two-year diploma program of postgraduate training in Obstetrics and gynecology.

Most students think that medical education is only about clearing the entrance exam and getting admission to MBBS. However, the reality is way different than this perception. Clearing the exam isn’t the final step, rather, is the beginning of the life of a medical student. A medical degree is considered one of the toughest degrees in the world. For a student, it’s definitely more work because of the unlimited workload and the time limit, which means a lot less sleep and a lot more stress.

Top Struggles of MBBS Students are:

  1. Adjusting with peers: Medical colleges are responsible for ensuring that graduates are knowledgeable, skilful, and professional to meet society’s expectations. Due to this, students have to prepare themselves for the vast syllabus while also adjusting with peers. There is huge peer pressure on medical students when it comes to adjusting themselves in the new environment due to high level of competition.
  2. Wow! You are smart, you should be a doctor: Medical might not be the hardest choice for aspirants but the journey is indeed very hard. Students put in all the efforts, and energy to enter the clinical world; the world that includes a lot of hard work, sleepless nights, countless hours of study, and whatnot. However, there are many students who give their 100 percent just to satisfy that One Big Dream of their family and relatives, at the cost of their happiness.
  3. Do you have a social life? When it comes to a medical student’s social life, the status is quite complicated. Students get trapped with books, assignments and practices, etc. that they can’t focus much on their social life. Although medicine is a very social course and being a healthcare professional, students must know how to deal with people. To take time out for social activities, students need to maintain a schedule that allows them to manage it all.
  4. Start the day and end the day with medicine: – The primary motivation is to enjoy studying. Exhaustion due to continuous studies can make medical college seem like a burden. So students must divert their attention from studies a bit and focus on “personal development.” This involves honing talents that fall outside the purview of academic study yet are nevertheless crucial for a doctor. For instance, participating in music or theatre can help students get used to performing or interacting in front of a large audience. This also helps them to confidently address and speak at a conference or simply to a group of their coworkers. There is a balance that needs to be achieved between working and enjoying life.
  5. You have to memorize so many new drugs, that your brain might explode: The most problematic situation that students face is that they need to cram names of thousands of new drugs and various syndromes, which is confusing. Also since these drugs are vast along with their own different characteristics, it is easy to forget a few. This is not the end, memorizing drugs also includes knowing their purposes, advantages, and disadvantages, after effects, and what all changes can be possible, which also includes how they respond in every individual’s body.

Watch Video to learn the right way to approach Pharmacology in MBBS

  1. The unending workload: – It is a popular talking point that a medical student’s life in med college is endless. The reason behind this is that medical courses are the longest courses in the educational world. It nearly takes a decade to become a fully qualified doctor. The entire journey demands a lot of hard work, sleepless nights, and a huge number of complications. It is not easy to maintain patience throughout this period and often students lose themselves in the wheel of practicals, rounds, syllabus, and examinations.
  2. Finance: – Finance is a huge problem for a medical aspirant. How? Not all medical aspirants belong to financially stable families, and neither do all receive government scholarships. Many students dream to become a doctor, but again finances remain a challenge. Medical studies are considered one of the most expensive education all over the world. It is a vast and expensive course. If a student does not have an adequate amount of money, pursuing a medical degree can be challenging. If this problem arises while a student is pursuing the course, students should always have a backup option.
  3. Exams Breakdown: – Exams have always been a huge load. Even the thought of it is scary because the syllabus is so vast that sometimes the duration of preparation tends to seem less. There’s no doubt medical life is filled with competitors, which makes the exam period even more stressful. Skipping topics is another aspect that makes it stressful while spending more time on important topics. Additionally, lack of sleep, headaches, and stress can easily lead to breakdowns.
  4. A good night’s sleep is a wonder for you: – Back-to-back classes, practicals, and whatnot get tiresome for them. Most students have sleepless nights because of assignments, many even suffer from sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality which is common during the internship. Researchers have paid much attention to the critical function that sleep plays in preserving mental health, advanced learning, and overall welfare. From 1st year to the final year, medical students are particularly prone to sleep-related problems due to the huge syllabus. So it is very important for students to at least have 6 – 8 hours of sound sleep.

Life of Students in the 1st year of MBBS:

Medical College is nothing like high school; it is challenging not simply because there is so much knowledge to gain, but also because students get to learn new skills. Students mostly in their first year, try to understand what kind of studying technique works to cover the syllabus. The first year is all about learning, failing and again understanding where you were wrong and then starting again.

Life in college doesn’t resemble the medical dramaGrey’s Anatomy in reality. No one goes to the clinical rounds in the first year itself. In the first year, students study Biophysics, Anatomy, and Histology and prepare for tests most of the days.

In the first year, it’s not all about saving lives. The only life students can save is theirs, by fixing a decent study routine for themselves, figuring out how to adjust their studies and things they like doing beyond studying and getting sufficient rest.

Life of Students in the 2nd year of MBBS:

It’s the best time to retrospect and make a schedule that can help students manage studies, social life, and sleep. The one benefit students have in their 2nd year is that they get familiar with the environment, faculty, and course too, so it becomes a bit easy for them to communicate and discuss their problems in the class or with the faculty. It gets even easier to make a schedule that can be followed given that students get quite familiar with the frequency of classes, practicals, and tests.

Life of Students in the 3rd year of MBBS:

It is very much like climbing one more step and reaching one step near to the goal of becoming a Top Doc. Becoming more focused on studies and attending a lot of practicals are included in the 3rd year. It is time for students to get exposed to the practical technicalities of the field. Students become familiar with everyday struggles in 3rd year; they feel the sensation of being worn out, because of classes and clinical rounds. They need to have some sort of framework, whether it be a paper journal or a schedule reminder turned on on their mobile phones.

Life of Students in the 4th year of MBBS:

The significant cause of the pressure students face in the final year is due to the major subjects like Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, OBGYN, Orthopaedics, etc. which are highly important for NEET PG. They experience maximum stress when they start going for rounds. Medicine is a long-distance race, not a run. Regardless of whether students complete their last year, it isn’t the end. They still need to learn a lot more because now their real life as interns and saviours begin. It’s now time to put all the knowledge into application.

Get conceptual clarity in Medicine from Dr. Archith Boloor

Passing the final exam in MBBS is crucial to starting your career as a doctor. Students must focus on conceptual clarity to clear the final exams. Discipline and dedication are the keys to mastering the syllabus. Moreover, aspirants that are pursuing the MBBS program at any medical college must complete the internship. An internship is a term of learning, or, to put it in simple words, more practical work than theoretical training. The internship phase is where you put all of the theoretical information you’ve learned over the last four years into action.

You should have a proper plan if you are going to enrol yourself as a medical student, it is a long ride with lots of struggle, hard work, failures, and whatnot. The medical course is exceptionally vast due to the volume of material that needs to be learned along with both the basic scientific principles and the clinical abilities. Keeping in mind the surreal feeling that a doctor feels while saving someone’s life is something that can’t be put into words, and furthermore, the feeling of saving somebody’s life is simply inexplicable. Once your goal is set and you are ready for it, it is definitely going to be the best chapter of your life.


Adenoid is a subepithelial collection of lymphoid tissue situated at the junction of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. It is also known as nasopharyngeal tonsil, having vertical ridges of lymphoid tissue separated by deep clefts.

  • It is covered by three epithelium i.e., transitional, pseudostratified ciliated columnar, and stratified squamous.
  • Having no crypts and capsules.
  • It is included in the waldeyer’s ring of lymphoid tissue.
  • It is present at birth but shows physiological enlargement up to 6 yrs and then starts atrophy at puberty.
  • It disappears by age of 20.
  • It is seen in MRIs of all infants by the age of 5 months.
  • The persistence of adenoids can be seen beyond the age of 15 years in case of allergy or infection.
  • One in number
  • Lymphatics from this tissue drain into upper jugular nodes directly or indirectly through retropharyngeal and Para pharyngeal lymph nodes.
  • Arterial supply from ascending palatine branch of the al artery, ascending pharyngeal branch of the external carotid artery, ascending branch of the third part of the maxillary artery, and inferior thyroid artery’s ascending cervical branch.
  • Sometimes inflammation of the adenoid lead to pain in the ear due to the same nerve supply as cranial nerves IX and X (referred pain) or can be due to eustachian tube obstruction.


It is an obstructive condition due to the enlargement of the adenoid which can be physiological enlargement in childhood or due to some infections or allergic conditions.


  • Recurrent sinusitis, rhinitis, or chronic infection of tonsils lead to chronic adenoid infection and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue which results in adenoid hypertrophy.
  • Allergy to the upper respiratory tract may lead to the enlargement of adenoids.
  • Viral infections like EBV or bacterial infection of group A streptococci can lead to its enlargement.
  • Exposure to smoking or pollution.
  • Tumours of sinuses, lymphoma, and AIDS
  • Due to diseases like GERD, there is a reflux of acid that will irritate the adenoid tissue leading to inflammation and resulting in hypertrophy.


Signs and Symptoms

These depend not only on the size of the adenoid mass but also on the space that is available for enlargement in the nasopharynx. Excessive hypertrophy of the adenoid can lead to obstruction of the whole nasopharynx. In cases of enlargement, the patient may be asymptomatic but in severe enlarged and infected adenoids, the patient presents nasal, aural, and general symptoms.

  1. Nasal Symptoms

The commonest symptom is nasal obstruction due to recurrent sinusitis and this leads to mouth breathing. Nasal obstruction leads to interference in the suckling or feeding of a child. As respiration and feeding cannot occur together, the child fails to thrive as all his efforts go into breathing which will lead to suboptimal growth of the child. There will be nasal discharge due to choanal obstruction as the normal secretion cannot drain back into the nasopharynx and is associated with chronic maxillary sinusitis and the child has a wet bubbly nose.

When adenoids are acutely inflamed, epistaxis can occur when the patient blows his nose. Voice change can be seen i.e. toneless and losing nasal quality due to nasal obstruction and there will be rhinolalia clausa i.e. hyponasal or denasal speech due to lack of appropriate nasal airflow during speech.

  1. Aural Symptoms

Tubal Obstruction: Adenoid mass blocks the eustachian tube leading to retraction of the tympanic membrane and conductive hearing loss. Recurrent attacks of acute otitis media may occur due to the spread of infection through the eustachian tube. CSOM may fail to resolve in presence of infected adenoids. There will be fluctuating hearing loss due to differences in the size of the mass of the adenoid. Impedance audiometry test helps to identify fluid in the ear due to the presence of glue ear that is otitis media with effusion.

  1. General Symptoms

Adenoid Facies: Chronic nasal obstruction and mouth breathing lead to characteristic facial appearance.

  • Dull expression because he is unable to hear and elongated face, open mouth, prominent and crowded upper teeth, hitched up upper lip, pinched up nose because the child is a mouth breather so there will be no use of nose for a long time for breathing that will lead to disuse atrophy of alar prominence, nasa