Ophthalmology MD

Everything you need to know about Ophthalmology MD

Everything you need to know about Ophthalmology MD

June 29, 2022

The specialised area of medicine known as ophthalmology is dedicated to eyes’ health. It covers the physiology, anatomy, and disorders that could impact the eyes. A professional doctor who deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and medical care of the eyes is an ophthalmologist. Ophthalmologists are trained in both surgical techniques and pharmacological therapies because this could involve both. M.D.s have the specialised training to offer the complete range of eye care, from performing intricate and delicate eye surgery to dispensing contact lenses and spectacles. Research into the causes and treatments for eye disorders and vision issues is another area of expertise for many eye doctors.

What does the PG Ophthalmology course focus on?

PG Ophthalmology programme lasts 3 years after students complete their MBBS degree. The course helps train students to treat eye conditions such as glaucoma, which damages the optic nerve and impairs vision, with the potential to result in blindness, iritis, which is an inflammation of the iris that may be caused by a systemic disease, chemical burns, orbital cellulite. Higher education and training in a variety of subspecialties are made available to enrolled students, from performing critical eye surgery to prescribing glasses and contact lenses. The course is well-structured for doctors to address any eye issues that may arise.

The course covers the fundamentals of ophthalmology as well as more complex topics such as disorders of the optical nerve system and the uvea and vitreoretinal tissues. According to analyses obtained through the use of medication, surgery, diet, and other therapies, doctors are taught how to cure eyes. The curriculum is developed to equip MD students with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide total eye care, including vision services, eye examinations, medical and surgical eye procedures, and the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders and other visual difficulties.

DigiNerve’s Ophthalmology MD Course by Dr. N. Venkatesh Prajna

Dr. N. Venkatesh Prajna, the Editor-in-Chief of Ophthalmology MD has designed the course along with India’s 55 renowned faculty. Their collective expertise will help students remarkably to gain an in-depth knowledge of concepts. The course is designed from an academic, clinical, and surgical point of view. The in-video demonstration of various surgeries will give a whole new dimension to students’ postgraduate learning.

The Ophthalmology MD course is a thoughtfully compiled collection of topics from prominent ophthalmologists from across the nation. Around 400 topics that are significant from an academic, clinical, and surgical perspective are collected in the course. All of the course’s topics have been carefully chosen with consideration given to frequently asked questions and troublesome regions for postgraduate students to provide adequate knowledge.

This programme is one of the best PG Ophthalmology courses for students who are seeking to fare well in post-graduation. Components of the course appropriately match the requirement of students in the pre-operative workup, helping them to perform surgical skills and even handle post-operative difficulties. To meet all of the students’ learning needs, it promotes concept and approach-based learning.

Postgraduate students who are taking exams have a special section with an innovative examination corner. For frequently encountered ocular disorders, particular focus is placed on obtaining the proper clinical findings by following the proper case and history-taking procedures.

With the use of surgical videos combined with 3D animated sequences of every surgical step, practitioners could also develop clinical/surgical ophthalmic skills. The conceptual knowledge will take on a completely new dimension, thanks to the in-video display of the numerous surgeries being carried out.

To help students gain a full understanding of each topic and to prepare them for exams, the lectures are richly illustrated with clinical/surgical and radiological pictures, as well as flowcharts, tables, and boxes, wherever necessary. For many illnesses, recent evidence-based recommendations have been added to familiarise readers with recent developments in the field. The important diagnostic procedures and techniques have been covered in detail along with a drug chart for quick reference for the students with a special focus on drug dosages, adverse effects, and their indications/contraindications.

Table of Content – Ophthalmology MD by Dr. N. Venkatesh Prajna



Anesthesia for Cataract Surgery

Preoperative Evaluation of Cataract Surgery

IOL Power Calculation

Ocular Viscosurgical Devices

Manual Extracapsular Cataract Extraction

Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery – Basics

Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery – Complications

Applications of Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery

Secondary IOL Implantation Through Sclero-Corneal


Phacoemulsification Techniques

Cortical wash – Coaxial and Bimanual Irrigation Aspiration Techniques

Foldable IOLs, Loading and Implantation

Complications of Phacoemulsification

Applications of Phacoemulsification

Repositioning of IOL and IOL Exchange

Femto Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery

Lens Induced glaucoma

Instrument Sterilization


Cornea Basics

Corneal Topography

Specular Microscopy

Confocal Microscopy

Bacterial Keratitis

Fungal Keratitis

Acanthamoeba Keratitis

Microsporidial Keratitis

Herpes Simplex Keratitis

Herpes Zoster Keratitis

Non Healing Keratitis/Non Healing Corneal Ulcers

Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis I -General concepts

Corneal Ectasia


Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid

Chemical Injuries of the Eye

Limbal Epithelial Transplantation (SLET and CLET, Buccal)

Amniotic Membrane Transplantation


Management of Ocular Trauma

Contact Lens

Corneal retrieval and Eye banking

Penetrating keratoplasty

Therapeutic keratoplasty

Graft Rejection

Refractive Surgeries

Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty


The Angle of Anterior Chamber

Aqueous Humour Dynamics


Central Corneal Thickness and Glaucoma


Pathogenesis of Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy

Clinical Evaluation of the Optic Nerve Head

Optic Nerve Head Changes in Glaucoma

Interpreting Humphrey Visual Field Reports

Interpreting Octopus Perimetry Reports

Anterior Segment Imaging Imaging – Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and Anterior segment Optical Coherence Tomography

Optic Nerve Head Imaging/Role of OCT in Glaucoma

Classification of the Glaucomas

Ocular Hypertension

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Normal-Tension Glaucoma

Primary Angle Closure Disease

Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma

Pigmentary Glaucoma

Lens Induced glaucoma

Uveitic Glaucoma

Neovascular Glaucoma

Glaucoma Associated with Ocular Trauma

Nanophthalmos and Other Secondary Angle Closure Glaucomas

Glaucoma after Vitreoretinal Surgery

Steroid Induced Glaucoma

Glaucoma following Penetrating Keratoplasty

Glaucoma Associated with Corneal Disorders

Classification and Early Diagnosis of Pediatric Glaucoma

Primary Congenital Glaucoma

Juvenile Open Angle Glaucoma

Glaucoma in Phacomatoses

Target Intra Ocular Pressure

Medical Management of Glaucoma

Newer Ocular Hypotensive Medications


Lasers in Glaucoma


Glaucoma Drainage Devices

Non-Penetrating Deep Sclerectomy

Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery

Cyclodestructive Procedures


Practical Pearls in Neuro-ophthalmology

Neuro-ophthalmic Cases: Case Scenarios

Approach to Neuroimaging in Neuro-ophthalmology

Evaluation of a Case of Double Vision

Optic Neuritis

Optic Atrophy


Myasthenia and Myopathies


Double Vision A 10-step Assessment Plan

Myasthenia Gravis and its Mimickers

Neuro-Ophthalmic Examination: An Overview

MRI Making Sense of the Images

Neuroimaging for Ophthalmologists

Evaluation of a Pale Optic Disc

Optic Neuropathy

Pupil Pathways and Inference

Bilateral Ocular Motility Disorders – A Differential Diagnosis

An Approach to Swollen Optic Discs

Visual Fields in Neuro-ophthalmology


Basic Microbiology

Antibiotics: Therapy and Testing

Molecular Diagnosis in Ocular Microbiology


Anatomy of the Orbit

Lacrimal Apparatus

Imaging of the Orbit: Computed Tomography Scan

Orbital Decompression for Thyroid Orbitopathy

Proptosis- General Concepts

Orbital trauma- Considerations and principles

Orbital fractures and management

Orbit Infections

Fungal Infections of the Orbit

Parasitic Infections of the Orbit

Orbital Inflammations

Anophthalmic Socket

Contracted Socket

Benign tumors of the Orbit

Vascular Lesions of the Orbit

Reconstructive Socket Surgeries: Enucleation, Evisceration and Exenteration

Blepharoptosis: Evaluation and Management

Eyelid Retraction



Esthetic Eyelid Surgery

Basics of Eyelid Reconstruction

Overview of Eyelid Reconstruction

Lacrimal Drainage System: Anatomy and Anomalies

Evaluation of the Lacrimal System

Congenital NasoLacrimal Duct Obstruction

Adult NasoLacrimal Duct Obstruction

Botulinum Toxin in Ophthalmology

Orbitotomy- Introduction

Lateral Orbitotomy

Orbitotomy – Other Approaches


Pediatric Ophthalmology

Development of Visual System

Typical Development of Visual Milestones

Estimating Visual Acuity in a Child

Estimating Visual Acuity in Infant

Childhood Refractive Errors and Guidelines on Management

Lazy Eye

Red Eye in a Child and Vitamin A Deficiency

Syndromes with Ocular Manifestation

Low Vision (Visual Impairment)

Vision Assessment in Children with Low Vision

Low Vision Aids – Optical

Non Optical Aids and Rehabilitation

Headaches in Children

Ocular Causes of Headache


Macular Function Tests

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

Indocyanine Green Angiography

Optical Coherence Tomography

OCT Angiography


Fundus Autofluorescence and Multicolor Imaging


Anatomy, Physiology and Embryology of Vitreous

Evaluation of Retina and Vitreous

Diabetic Retinopathy

Hypertension and the Eye

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

Age-related Macular Degeneration

Pachychoroid Spectrum Disease – Introduction and Pachychoroid Pigment Epitheliopathy

Central Serous Chorio-Retinopathy

Pachychoroid Neovasculopathy & Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV)

Peripapillary Pachychoroid Syndrome & Focal Choroidal Excavation

Hereditary Macular Dystrophies

Macular Pathologies

Peripheral Retinal Degenerations

Retinopathy of Prematurity

Melanoma PG 1


Paraneoplastic Retinopathy

Vascular Tumors of Retina and Choroid

Lasers in Retina

Intravitreal Injections

Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

Non Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

Posterior Segment Trauma

Systemic Diseases with Retinal Manifestations

Principles of Vitreoretinal Surgery

IOFB and its Management


AI in Ophthalmology

Vitreoretinal Interface Diseases of the Macula – Epiretinal Membrane


Extra-Ocular Muscles & Orbital Fascia Applied Anatomy​

Physiology of Extra Ocular Muscles

Binocular Single Vision​

Strabismus – Classification & Etiology​

Approach to a Comitant Deviation Patient


Hess Charting

Comitant Horizontal Strabismus: Esodeviation

Comitant Horizontal Strabismus: Exodeviation-

Vertical Deviation a. Approach to vertical deviations

Pattern Strabismus

Paretic Strabismus

Diagnosis and Management of Oculomotor Palsy

Diagnosis and Management of Trochlear Nerve Palsy

Diagnosis and Management of Abducent Nerve

Duanes Retraction Syndrome

Restrictive Strabismus

Browns Syndrome

Monocular Elevation Deficiency

Thyroid Related Strabismus

Congenital Fibrosis of Extra Ocular Muscles

Non-surgical Management of Strabismus

Surgical Management of Strabismus

Complications of Strabismus Surgery


Uveal Tract

The SUN Classification & Terminologies of Uveitis

Systematic Work Up in Uveitis

Construction of Differential Diagnosis in Uveitis

Art of Ordering Lab Investigations in Uveitis

Immunosuppressives and New Biologicals

Management of Uveitic Cataracts

Ocular Tuberculosis

Viral Anterior Uveitis

Viral Uveitis

CMV – Posterior Uveitis

Leptospirosis & Syphilitic Uveitis

Ocular Toxoplasma

HIV and Opportunistic Infections Non Infectious Uveitis

Autoimmune Diseases and Uveitis



Sympathetic Ophthalmia

The Masquerades


Visual Acuity

Refractive Errors


Subjective Refraction

Accommodation and Convergence

Presbyopia Mechanism, Optical Correction and Surgical Procedures

Spectacle Lenses, Frames and Vertex Distance


Progressive Additional Lenses


Contact Lenses

Colour Vision Contrast Sensitivity and Higher Order Aberrations




Low Vision Aids

Examination Corner

How to Write a Theory Paper

How to Describe Clinical Finding in a Uveitis Case?

FAQs in a Uveitis Case

How to Describe Clinical Finding in a Cornea Case

How to Describe Clinical Finding in a Retina Case?

FAQs in a Fundus Case Pertaining to the Retinal Vessels

How to Describe Clinical Finding in a Glaucoma Case?

How to Describe Clinical Finding in a Orbit Case?

FAQs in a Orbit Case

How to Describe Management in Examinations


OSCE Glaucoma

OSCE in Posterior Segment

OSCE in Neuro-ophthalmology

Ophthalmic Instruments

Best Way to Study Ophthalmology MD

  1. The postgraduate students should actively participate in lecture demonstrations, seminars, symposia, and inter and intradepartmental meetings. Through participation in symposia, CMEs, and journal clubs, they are exposed to contemporary developments. This will help them to focus on the aim, methods, remarks, conversations, and conclusions.
  2. They should gain clinical training by going through maximum clinical case discussions. Case discussions based on student-written patient records will assist students to hone their diagnostic and decision-making abilities.
  3. They should participate in presentations and discussions in a variety of ways. Using a problem-oriented approach will help students with decision-making.
  4. They should indulge in discussions with their senior postgraduate students before presenting in the symposium. The postgraduate students can prepare for a class-wide debate by participating in these discussions.
  5. Postgraduate students should indulge in bedside conversations during rounds and outpatient instruction which will help create an impact on patient management.
  6. Students should take interest in consultant’s case presentations which help in the solution of challenging issues and provide a forum for the debate of intriguing instances.
  7. The postgraduate students must take part in the training and instruction of interns and undergraduate students to brush up on their knowledge.
  8. They should attend monthly chat shows by eminent faculty, like the ones provided by the DigiNerve app.
  9. The student must take up rotations in the specialty clinics- Anterior segment and cataract, Glaucoma, Oculoplastics, Paediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, Retina and Uvea, Cornea, Contact lens and low vision, Neuro-ophthalmology, and Refractive Clinic.
  10. The postgraduate students should take the postings very seriously since they familiarize students with the typical ophthalmic issues. They must work freely and accept new and old cases, including refractions.
  11. The postgraduate student should make sure to keep an in-depth history and case record.
  12. MD students need to focus on basic sciences, biostatistics, research technique, teaching methodology, hospital waste management, health economics, medical ethics, and legal concerns connected to the practice of ophthalmology.


    Q1. What is the highest degree in ophthalmology?
    Ans. Doctor of Medicine in Ophthalmology is the highest degree gained in the field of ophthalmology.

    Q2. What is the future of ophthalmology?

    Ans. By 2025, there will be a need for about 22,000 ophthalmic surgeons, according to an estimate from the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2016. It also predicted that there will be more than 6,000 more doctors needed to meet the demand than there are currently available ophthalmologists.

    Q3. What are the subspecialties in Ophthalmology?

    Ans. Subspecialties in Ophthalmology include Glaucoma, Strabismus/pediatric ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, anterior segment/cornea, retina/uveitis, oculoplastics/orbit, and ocular oncology.

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