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Pathology: Important Topics and Preparation Tips

Pathology: Important Topics and Preparation Tips

February 14, 2024
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Pathology is a comprehensive subject, included in the 2nd year of the MBBS curriculum. It covers various aspects of disease processes, their causes, and the resulting changes in the structure and function of the body. The subject serves as the bridge between the basic sciences and clinical medicine, helping medical professionals understand the underlying processes of diseases.

Medical students must have a sound knowledge of the pathology subject, as it provides a foundation for understanding disease processes, making accurate diagnoses, and formulating appropriate treatment plans. The subject also plays a crucial role in research and contributes significantly to medical knowledge and patient care advancements.

The Pathology course curriculum in MBBS includes an introduction to pathology, cellular pathology, hematology, general pathology, systemic pathology, common pathogens and their mechanisms, histopathology, clinical pathology, autopsy, and forensic pathology.

 

Subject Weightage of Pathology in Competitive Exams

Approximately 12 questions are asked in the NEET-PG exam, and in the INI-CET, approximately, 13-16 questions are asked from the Pathology subject.

The competitive exams mainly assess the understanding of the aspirant regarding disease processes, diagnostic principles, and the application of pathology in clinical scenarios.

Getting familiar with the subject weightage of subjects in exams, exam patterns, high-yield topics, and reliable preparation tips multiplies the chances of gaining conceptual clarity over a subject and scoring high in the exams.

 

Important Topics of Pathology in MBBS

 

Hematology

  • Coagulation Pathway
  • Hemophilia
  • Blood Bank
  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Hemolytic Anemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Hypercoagulability
  • Thalassemia
  • Acute Leukemia (AML/ALL)
  • CML & MDS
  • Waldenstrom’s Disease and Heavy Chain Disorders
  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
  • Stain

 

Cell Biology

  • Cell Injury Concept
  • Cellular Adaption
  • Irreversible Injury 1 and 2
  • Free Radical Injury
  • Pigmentation
  • Necrosis

 

GIT

  • Jaundice
  • Fatty Liver
  • Hepatitis
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Whipple Disease
  • GI Polyps
  • Liver disorders
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Acute and Chronic Gastritis
  • GIT Tumor
  • Congenital GIT Anomalies
  • Mesothelioma

 

Renal

  • PSGN
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • ADPKD
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Glomerular Nephritis
  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Alport Syndrome
  • Renal Spotters
  • Renal Stones

 

CNS

  • Malformations of Brain
  • CSF Analysis
  • Prion Disease
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Meningioma
  • CNS Degenerative Disease
  • Meningitis
  • CNS Tumor
  • Neuroblastoma

 

Lung

  • ARDS
  • Emphysema
  • TB Lung Lesions
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Occupational Disease
  • Obstructive Lung Disorders
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Infective Lung Disorders
  • Lung Abscess
  • Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Lung Cancer
  • COPD
  • Asbestosis

 

CVS

  • Myocardial Infarction
  • DCM & HCM
  • Aortic Aneurysm
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Vasculitis
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Vascular Sclerosis
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Clotting Factor Disorders
  • Blood Transfusion and Blood Grouping
  • Platelets Disorders

 

Breast

  • Fibroadenoma
  • Breast Oncogenesis
  • Breast Cancer
  • TNM Staging

 

Endocrine

  • Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Follicular Carcinoma
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Parathyroid and Thyroid Disorders
  • Adrenal Gland Disorders

 

Inflammation

  • Plasma Chemical Mediators
  • Coagulation Cascade
  • Chronic Inflammation
  • Neutrophil Extracellular Trap
  • Inflammatory Markers

 

Malignancy

  • Tumor Marker
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Molecular Hallmark of Cancer
  • Bone Tumors
  • Melanoma
  • Hodgkin & Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Seminoma

 

Genetics

  • Gene Repair Defects
  • Inheritance Pattern
  • Down Syndrome
  • Turner Syndrome
  • TNR Disorders
  • Single Cell Disorder
  • Specific Cytogenetic Disorders

 

Immunology

  • Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • Granuloma
  • Complement Pathway
  • Immunodeficiency Disorders

 

Miscellaneous

  • Aging
  • Marfan & Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
  • Transplantation
  • HIV
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Amyloidosis

 

Tips to Prepare Pathology in MBBS

 

Preparing for pathology in MBBS requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. To have an in-depth understanding of the subject, establish a strong foundation in anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, as pathology builds upon these subjects. The MBBS curriculum caters to general pathology, hematology, systemic pathology, clinical pathology, and practicals in pathology.

To start with the pathology subject, familiarize yourself with basic medical terminologies, and then move on to the general pathology section. Understand the basics and attend regular classes. From the beginning, create a well-organized study schedule to cover all the topics systematically, and allocate sufficient time to review and consolidate your learning. Once you grasp the fundamental concepts, start with the hematology section.

Be wise while choosing the books for pathology. Opt recommended standard textbooks to clear your concepts, pathology atlases to visualize and understand various pathological conditions, and also add pathology review books to your shelves that provide concise summaries of key concepts for quick revision. Some recommendations for pathology books are Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan, Essentials in Hematology and Clinical Pathology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology by Ramadas Nayak, Rapid Review of Hematology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Review of Pathology and Genetics by Sparsh Gupta & Gobind Rai Garg, and Comprehensive Image-Based Review of Pathology by Sushant Soni.

Then, further, start emphasizing systemic pathology. Thoroughly study all the systems along with prevalent conditions and diagnostic methods. Make sure you make proper notes side by side for all the topics. They will prove quite beneficial at the time of exams for revision, be it professional exams or any competitive exams. During your studies, engage in active learning methods such as concept mapping, creating flashcards, and flowcharts, and teaching concepts to peers. Also, solve clinical case scenarios to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations. Create mind maps and diagrams to visualize complex pathways and relationships between different pathological conditions.

Remember ‘P for Pathology and P for Practicals’. The subject is better understood when you conduct experiments and practicals simultaneously. It is highly advised to attend pathology practical classes to enhance your understanding of histopathology and diagnostic techniques. Also, during your lab sessions, practice identifying microscopic slides and understanding the correlation between pathology and clinical presentations. Consider shadowing or observing clinical cases in pathology labs. Correlate clinical features with pathological findings to strengthen your understanding of clinical pathology. Becoming capable of finding the clinical relevance of pathological conditions and relating pathology to signs, symptoms, and diagnostic methods is an assertive sign that you are becoming well-versed in pathology concepts.

Along with learning pathology and attending practical sessions, solve practice questions for all the topics for self-evaluation and better understanding. Also, solve past exam papers and mock papers for the exams you are determined to score high. Solving them will help you understand the exam pattern, improve time-management skills, identify key aspects, and focus on high-yielding topics. Along with college lectures, practical sessions, and ward postings, keep yourself updated with the recent advances and research in pathology by attending webinars, workshops, and conferences.

To reinforce your understanding of pathology concepts, you can enroll in the Pathology for UnderGrads online course by Prof. Harsh Mohan, Prof. Ramadas Nayak, and Dr. Debasis Gochhait. The course provides access to video lectures, concise notes, and practice questions, all aligned with the CBME curriculum. The lectures comprise relevant case studies, case discussions, histological and gross images, and important questions for university exams, practical exams, and PG entrance exams. Most importantly, regularly revise topics to reinforce your memory.

 

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

  1. What are the important topics of pathology in MBBS?

The important topics of pathology in MBBS include Multiple Myeloma, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Lymphoma, Thalassemia, Acute Leukemia, Gene Repair Defects, Inflammation, Free Radical Injury, Fatty Liver, Ulcerative Colitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Peptic Ulcer Disease, Diabetic Retinopathy, Glomerular Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, CNS Degenerative Disease, Meningitis, Occupational Disease, Infective Lung Disorder, Lung Abscess, Infective Endocarditis, Adrenal Gland Disorders, Breast Cancer, Tumor Suppressor Gene, Hypertension, Genital System, and Down Syndrome.

 

  1. Which are the recommended books on pathology for MBBS students?

Recommended books for pathology in MBBS include Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan, Essentials in Hematology and Clinical Pathology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Exam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology by Ramadas Nayak, Rapid Review of Hematology by Ramadas Nayak & Sharada Rai, Review of Pathology and Genetics by Sparsh Gupta & Gobind Rai Garg and Comprehensive Image Based Review of Pathology by Sushant Soni.

 

  1. What is the weightage of pathology in the NEET PG exam?

In the NEET-PG exam, approximately 12 questions are asked from the pathology subject.

 

  1. What is the subject weightage of pathology in INI-CET?

In INI-CET, approximately 13–16 questions are asked from the pathology subject.

 

  1. How to prepare for pathology for the NEET-PG?

Preparing for pathology in MBBS requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Establish a strong foundation in fundamental subjects. Familiarize yourself with basic terminologies and then move on to sections. Attend regular classes and practical sessions. Take proper notes. Create a well-organized study schedule. Grasp the fundamental concepts. Opt for recommended standard textbooks, pathology atlases, and pathology review books. Thoroughly study all the systems along with prevalent conditions and diagnostic methods. Engage in active learning methods such as concept mapping, creating flashcards, flowcharts, mind maps, diagrams, and more. Also, solve clinical case scenarios to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations. Solve practice questions for all the topics for self-evaluation and better understanding. Keep yourself updated with recent advances and research. Attend webinars, workshops, and conferences. Enroll in the Pathology for UnderGrads online course by Prof. Harsh Mohan, Prof. Ramadas Nayak, and Dr. Debasis Gochhait to reinforce your learning.

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